Mechanical biofilm disruption causes microbial and immunological shifts in periodontitis patients

Johnston, W., Rosier, B.T., Artacho, A., Paterson, M., Piela, K., Delaney, C., Brown, J.L. , Ramage, G. , Mira, A. and Culshaw, S. (2021) Mechanical biofilm disruption causes microbial and immunological shifts in periodontitis patients. Scientific Reports, 11, 9796. (doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-89002-z) (PMID:33963212) (PMCID:PMC8105330)

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Abstract

Periodontitis is characterized by subgingival biofilm dysbiosis, inflammation and tissue destruction. Current treatment involves mechanical biofilm disruption known as non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). This study sought to characterise the impact of treatment on microbial diversity and overall community, and the parallel impact on host inflammation in the oral cavity. Fourty-two periodontitis patients were included in this study, with periodontal clinical parameters, subgingival plaque and saliva samples collected at baseline and 90 days after treatment. Salivary cytokines were quantified, and subgingival plaque was analysed using 16S rRNA sequencing. After treatment, there were marked health-associated alterations in microbial composition and diversity, including differential abundance of 42 genera and 61 species. These changes were accompanied by substantial clinical improvement (pockets ≥ 5 mm, 27.50% to 9.00%, p < 0.001) and a decrease in salivary IL-1β (p < 0.001)—a putative marker of periodontal inflammation. Despite significant reductions in disease associated anaerobes, several genera (Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Tanenerella, Treponema) remained present and formed a distinct subnetwork associated with residual disease. Collectively, this study shows that current periodontal treatment results in partial restoration of a healthy microbial ecosystem, but features of biofilm dysbiosis and host inflammation remain in some patients, which were surprisingly independent of clinical response.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Brown, Dr Jason and Ramage, Professor Gordon and Johnston, William and Delaney, Christopher and Paterson, Mr Michael and Culshaw, Professor Shauna
Authors: Johnston, W., Rosier, B.T., Artacho, A., Paterson, M., Piela, K., Delaney, C., Brown, J.L., Ramage, G., Mira, A., and Culshaw, S.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing > Dental School
Journal Name:Scientific Reports
Publisher:Nature Research
ISSN:2045-2322
ISSN (Online):2045-2322
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in Scientific Reports 11: 9796
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
190876Investigating the immune response to citrullinated antigenShauna CulshawVersus Arthritis (ARTRESUK)20823Med - Dental School
173112Understanding processes and mechanisms affecting the oral microbiome using OMICs approachesGordon RamageBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/P504567/1Med - Dental School