State space functional principal component analysis to identify spatiotemporal patterns in remote sensing lake water quality

Gong, M., Miller, C. , O'Donnell, R. and Scott, M. (2021) State space functional principal component analysis to identify spatiotemporal patterns in remote sensing lake water quality. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 35(12), pp. 2521-2536. (doi: 10.1007/s00477-021-02017-w)

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Abstract

Satellite remote sensing can provide indicative measures of environmental variables that are crucial to understanding the environment. The spatial and temporal coverage of satellite images allows scientists to investigate the changes in environmental variables in an unprecedented scale. However, identifying spatiotemporal patterns from such images is challenging due to the complexity of the data, which can be large in volume yet sparse within individual images. This paper proposes a new approach, state space functional principal components analysis (SS-FPCA), to identify the spatiotemporal patterns in processed satellite retrievals and simultaneously reduce the dimensionality of the data, through the use of functional principal components. Furthermore our approach can be used to produce interpolations over the sparse areas. An algorithm based on the alternating expectation–conditional maximisation framework is proposed to estimate the model. The uncertainty of the estimated parameters is investigated through a parametric bootstrap procedure. Lake chlorophyll-a data hold key information on water quality status. Such information is usually only available from limited in situ sampling locations or not at all for remote inaccessible lakes. In this paper, the SS-FPCA is used to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns in chlorophyll-a data of Taruo Lake on the Tibetan Plateau, observed by the European Space Agency MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Scott, Professor Marian and O'Donnell, Dr Ruth and Gong, Miss Mengyi and Miller, Professor Claire
Authors: Gong, M., Miller, C., O'Donnell, R., and Scott, M.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Mathematics and Statistics
College of Science and Engineering > School of Mathematics and Statistics > Statistics
Journal Name:Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:1436-3240
ISSN (Online):1436-3259
Published Online:21 April 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 35(12): 2521-2536
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons licence

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
166846Global Observatory of Lake Responses to Environmental Change (GloboLakes).Claire MillerNatural Environment Research Council (NERC)NE/J022810/1M&S - Statistics