Vitamin K and vascular calcification

Lees, J. S. , Mark, P. B. and Witham, M. D. (2021) Vitamin K and vascular calcification. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 30(4), pp. 430-436. (doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000712) (PMID:33871429)

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Purpose of review Vascular calcification is a common and important cardiovascular risk factor in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent advances in the understanding of the biology of vascular calcification implicate vitamin K-dependent proteins as important regulators in this process. This review highlights recent key advances in vascular biology, epidemiology, and clinical trials in this rapidly evolving field. Recent findings Vitamin K deficiency is associated with increasing severity of vascular calcification among patients with CKD, but the relationship with cardiovascular disease and mortality is inconsistent. Vitamin K may reduce calcification propensity by improving the activity of vitamin K-dependent calcification inhibitors or by down-regulating components of the innate immune system to reduce inflammation. However, recent randomized controlled trials in patients with diabetes, CKD, renal transplant, and on hemodialysis have failed to demonstrate improvement in vascular calcification or stiffness after vitamin K treatment. Summary Current evidence does not support a clinically useful role for vitamin K supplementation to prevent or reverse vascular calcification in patients with CKD. Knowledge gaps remain, particularly whether higher doses of vitamin K, longer duration of supplementations, or use a vitamin K as a part of a package of measures to counteract vascular calcification might be effective.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:No funding directly supported the writing of this review. JSL is personally funded by the Chief Scientist Office (Scotland) Postdoctoral Lectureship Scheme (PCL/20/10).
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Mark, Professor Patrick and Lees, Jennifer
Authors: Lees, J. S., Mark, P. B., and Witham, M. D.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Health
Journal Name:Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Publisher:Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins
ISSN (Online):1473-6543
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins
First Published:First published in Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 30(4):430-436
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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