Antibody responses in cats following primary and annual vaccination against Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) with an inactivated whole-virus vaccine (Fel-O-Vax® FIV)

Westman, M., Yang, D., Green, J., Norris, J., Malik, R., Parr, Y. A., McDonald, M., Hosie, M. J. , VandeWoude, S. and Miller, C. (2021) Antibody responses in cats following primary and annual vaccination against Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) with an inactivated whole-virus vaccine (Fel-O-Vax® FIV). Viruses, 13(3), 470. (doi: 10.3390/v13030470) (PMID:33809232) (PMCID:PMC7998844)

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Abstract

Although the antibody response induced by primary vaccination with Fel-O-Vax® FIV (three doses, 2–4 weeks apart) is well described, the antibody response induced by annual vaccination with Fel-O-Vax® FIV (single dose every 12 months after primary vaccination) and how it compares to the primary antibody response has not been studied. Residual blood samples from a primary FIV vaccination study (n = 11), and blood samples from cats given an annual FIV vaccination (n = 10), were utilized. Samples from all 21 cats were tested with a commercially available PCR assay (FIV RealPCRTM), an anti-p24 microsphere immunoassay (MIA), an anti-FIV transmembrane (TM; gp40) peptide ELISA, and a range of commercially available point-of-care (PoC) FIV antibody kits. PCR testing confirmed all 21 cats to be FIV-uninfected for the duration of this study. Results from MIA and ELISA testing showed that both vaccination regimes induced significant antibody responses against p24 and gp40, and both anti-p24 and anti-gp40 antibodies were variably present 12 months after FIV vaccination. The magnitude of the antibody response against both p24 and gp40 was significantly higher in the primary FIV vaccination group than in the annual FIV vaccination group. The differences in prime versus recall post-vaccinal antibody levels correlated with FIV PoC kit performance. Two FIV PoC kits that detect antibodies against gp40, namely Witness® and Anigen Rapid®, showed 100% specificity in cats recently administered an annual FIV vaccination, demonstrating that they can be used to accurately distinguish vaccination and infection in annually vaccinated cats. A third FIV PoC kit, SNAP® Combo, had 0% specificity in annually FIV-vaccinated cats, and should not be used in any cat with a possible history of FIV vaccination. This study outlines the antibody response to inactivated Fel-O-Vax® FIV whole-virus vaccine, and demonstrates how best to diagnose FIV infection in jurisdictions where FIV vaccination is practiced.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This research was supported financially by the Australian Companion Animal Health Foundation and the Feline Health Research Fund. M.W. was supported by an Australian Postgraduate Award (APA), the Neil and Allie Lesue Scholarship, the Herbert Johnson Travel Grant Scholarship and an Endeavour Research Fellowship. R.M. was supported by the Valentine Charlton Bequest.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Hosie, Professor Margaret and Parr, Ms Yasmin
Creator Roles:
Parr, Y.Conceptualization, Visualization, Methodology, Investigation, Data curation, Writing – review and editing, Project administration, Funding acquisition
Hosie, M.Conceptualization, Visualization, Methodology, Writing – review and editing, Supervision, Project administration, Funding acquisition
Authors: Westman, M., Yang, D., Green, J., Norris, J., Malik, R., Parr, Y. A., McDonald, M., Hosie, M. J., VandeWoude, S., and Miller, C.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Viruses
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:1999-4915
ISSN (Online):1999-4915
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in Viruses 13(3):470
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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