Human rhinovirus infection blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication within the respiratory epithelium: implications for COVID-19 epidemiology

Dee, K., Goldfarb, D. M., Haney, J., Amat, J. A.R., Herder, V., Stewart, M., Szemiel, A. M., Baguelin, M. and Murcia, P. R. (2021) Human rhinovirus infection blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication within the respiratory epithelium: implications for COVID-19 epidemiology. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 224(1), pp. 31-38. (doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiab147) (PMID:33754149) (PMCID:PMC8083659)

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Abstract

Virus-virus interactions influence the epidemiology of respiratory infections. However, the impact of viruses causing upper respiratory infections on SARS-CoV-2 replication and transmission is currently unknown. Human rhinoviruses cause the common cold and are the most prevalent respiratory viruses of humans. Interactions between rhinoviruses and co-circulating respiratory viruses have been shown to shape virus epidemiology at the individual host and population level. Here, we examined the replication kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 in the human respiratory epithelium in the presence or absence of rhinovirus. We show that human rhinovirus triggers an interferon response that blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication. Mathematical simulations show that this virus-virus interaction is likely to have a population-wide effect as an increasing prevalence of rhinovirus will reduce the number of new COVID-19 cases.

Item Type:Articles
Keywords:SARS-CoV-2, rhinovirus, virus-virus interactions.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Amat, Julien and Szemiel, Dr Agnieszka and Herder, Dr Vanessa and Goldfarb, Mr Daniel and Haney, Joanne and Stewart, Dr Meredith and Murcia, Professor Pablo and Dee, Dr Kieran
Authors: Dee, K., Goldfarb, D. M., Haney, J., Amat, J. A.R., Herder, V., Stewart, M., Szemiel, A. M., Baguelin, M., and Murcia, P. R.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Journal of Infectious Diseases
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0022-1899
ISSN (Online):1537-6613
Published Online:23 March 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in Journal of Infectious Diseases 224(1): 31-38
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License
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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
172630Quinquennial Core FundsMassimo PalmariniMedical Research Council (MRC)MC_UU_12014/9III-MRC-GU CVR Support Services
304005MRC Precision Medicine Training GrantMorven BarlassMedical Research Council (MRC)MR/N013166/1-LGH/MS/MED25CAMS - Cardiovascular Science
313949National Productivity Investment Fund StudentshipsGeorge BaillieMedical Research Council (MRC)MR/R502327/1MVLS - Graduate School