Identification of key performance indicators and complimentary load profiles for 5th generation district energy networks

Millar, M.-A., Yu, Z. , Burnside, N. , Jones, G. and Elrick, B. (2021) Identification of key performance indicators and complimentary load profiles for 5th generation district energy networks. Applied Energy, 291, 116672. (doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.116672)

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Abstract

Mass adoption of renewable heating is essential for achieving Net Zero 2050 emission targets. Rapid decarbonisation of heating could be delivered by 5th generation district heating networks, which share heating and cooling and offer energy, cost and carbon savings. We present an assessment framework for determining the economic, operational, and carbon benefits of heat pump driven energy sharing networks for an urban centre. Our analysis of complementary heating and cooling loads enabled novel identification of the building types which are best suited to thermal energy sharing. An urban street was modelled using Integrated Energy System Virtual Environment software, which produced heating, cooling, and hot water loads. These were implemented into a linear programming cost and carbon optimisation problem, producing operating curves for a pool of de-localised heat pumps under either cost or emission minimalization scenarios. Results show that energy sharing networks may reduce the Levelised Cost of Energy by 69% and carbon emissions by 13% when compared to an electrified non-shared energy system. Based on these findings, a load matrix was constructed to identify which energy loads from different building types can be suitably used for energy sharing. Despite promising cost-savings results, we conclude that low temperature district heating networks have much greater financial benefit when utilising appropriately sized thermal storage and time of use tariffs, rather than energy sharing. However, carbon savings can be made over alternatives, such as natural gas boilers. For developers undertaking a heat network project, the primary goal should be clearly defined as either carbon saving or money-making objective, as these are difficult to achieve synergistically.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Burnside, Dr Neil and Millar, Michael-Allan and Yu, Professor Zhibin
Creator Roles:
Millar, M.-A.Conceptualization, Methodology, Resources, Writing – review and editing, Supervision, Project administration, Funding acquisition
Yu, Z.Conceptualization, Methodology, Resources, Writing – review and editing, Supervision, Project administration, Funding acquisition
Burnside, N.Conceptualization, Methodology, Resources, Writing – review and editing, Supervision, Project administration, Funding acquisition
Authors: Millar, M.-A., Yu, Z., Burnside, N., Jones, G., and Elrick, B.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering
College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Systems Power and Energy
Journal Name:Applied Energy
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0306-2619
ISSN (Online):1872-9118
Published Online:19 March 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd.
First Published:First published in Applied Energy 291: 116672
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
300756NPIF EPSRC Doctoral - University of Glasgow 2017Neil BoweringEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/R512266/1S&E - Research Administration
300663Geothermally Sourced Power and Freshwater Generation for Eastern AfricaZhibin YuEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/P028829/1ENG - Systems Power & Energy
300273An ORC power plant integrated with thermal energy storage to utilise renewable heat sources for distributed H&PProject Number; 102883Zhibin YuEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/R003122/1ENG - Systems Power & Energy
172394Thermally Driven Heat Pump Based on an Integrated Thermodynamic Cycle for Low Carbon Domestic Heating (Therma-Pump)Zhibin YuEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/N020472/1ENG - Systems Power & Energy
304980University of Glasgow Innov PlacementsHeather LambieEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/S515395/1S&E - Graduate School