Habitat characteristics and insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti in the Ifakara area, south-eastern Tanzania

Kahamba, N. F., Limwagu, A. J., Mapua, S. A., Msugupakulya, B. J., Msaky, D. S., Kaindoa, E. W., Ngowo, H. S. and Okumu, F. O. (2020) Habitat characteristics and insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti in the Ifakara area, south-eastern Tanzania. Parasites and Vectors, 13, 53. (doi: 10.1186/s13071-020-3920-y) (PMID:32033619) (PMCID:PMC7006121)

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Abstract

Background: Aedes-borne diseases such as dengue and chikungunya constitute constant threats globally. In Tanzania, these diseases are transmitted by Aedes aegypti, which is widely distributed in urban areas, but whose ecology remains poorly understood in small towns and rural settings. Methods: A survey of Ae. aegypti aquatic habitats was conducted in and around Ifakara, a fast-growing town in south-eastern Tanzania. The study area was divided into 200 × 200 m search grids, and habitats containing immature Aedes were characterized. Field-collected Ae. aegypti were tested for susceptibility to common public health insecticides (deltamethrin, permethrin, bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl) in the dry and rainy seasons. Results: Of 1515 and 1933 aquatic habitats examined in the dry and rainy seasons, 286 and 283 contained Aedes immatures, respectively (container index, CI: 18.9–14.6%). In the 2315 and 2832 houses visited in the dry and rainy seasons, 114 and 186 houses had at least one Aedes-positive habitat, respectively (house index, HI: 4.9–6.6%). The main habitat types included: (i) used vehicle tires and discarded containers; (ii) flowerpots and clay pots; and (iii) holes made by residents on trunks of coconut trees when harvesting the coconuts. Used tires had highest overall abundance of Ae. aegypti immatures, while coconut tree-holes had highest densities per habitat. Aedes aegypti adults were susceptible to all tested insecticides in both seasons, except bendiocarb, against which resistance was observed in the rainy season. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study on ecology and insecticide susceptibility of Ae. aegypti in Ifakara area, and will provide a basis for future studies on its pathogen transmission activities and control. The high infestation levels observed indicate significant risk of Aedes-borne diseases, requiring immediate action to prevent potential outbreaks in the area. While used tires, discarded containers and flowerpots are key habitats for Ae. aegypti, this study also identified coconut harvesting as an important risk factor, and the associated tree-holes as potential targets for Aedes control. Since Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the area are still susceptible to most insecticides, effective control could be achieved by combining environmental management, preferably involving communities, habitat removal and insecticide spraying.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Masters scholarship in Public Health Research awarded to the lead author funded by African Development Bank (AfDB). Material, equipment and some of the field activities were supported through USAID funded Grant (Grant Number: AID-OAA-F-16-00093) awarded to FOO. FOO was also supported by a Wellcome Trust Intermediate Fellowship, Grant Number 102350.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Ngowo, Halfan and Okumu, Dr Fredros
Authors: Kahamba, N. F., Limwagu, A. J., Mapua, S. A., Msugupakulya, B. J., Msaky, D. S., Kaindoa, E. W., Ngowo, H. S., and Okumu, F. O.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Biodiversity, One Health & Veterinary Medicine
Journal Name:Parasites and Vectors
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1756-3305
ISSN (Online):1756-3305
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 The Authors
First Published:First published in Parasites and Vectors 13: 53
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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