Severe mental illness and mortality and coronary revascularisation following a myocardial infarction: a retrospective cohort study

Fleetwood, K., Wild, S. H., Smith, D. J. , Mercer, S. W. , Licence, K., Sudlow, C. L.M. and Jackson, C. A. (2021) Severe mental illness and mortality and coronary revascularisation following a myocardial infarction: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Medicine, 19, 67. (doi: 10.1186/s12916-021-01937-2) (PMID:33745445) (PMCID:PMC7983231)

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Abstract

Background: Severe mental illness (SMI), comprising schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression, is associated with higher myocardial infarction (MI) mortality but lower coronary revascularisation rates. Previous studies have largely focused on schizophrenia, with limited information on bipolar disorder and major depression, long-term mortality or the effects of either sociodemographic factors or year of MI. We investigated the associations between SMI and MI prognosis and how these differed by age at MI, sex and year of MI. Methods: We conducted a national retrospective cohort study, including adults with a hospitalised MI in Scotland between 1991 and 2014. We ascertained previous history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression from psychiatric and general hospital admission records. We used logistic regression to obtain odds ratios adjusted for sociodemographic factors for 30-day, 1-year and 5-year mortality, comparing people with each SMI to a comparison group without a prior hospital record for any mental health condition. We used Cox regression to analyse coronary revascularisation within 30 days, risk of further MI and further vascular events (MI or stroke). We investigated associations for interaction with age at MI, sex and year of MI. Results: Among 235,310 people with MI, 923 (0.4%) had schizophrenia, 642 (0.3%) had bipolar disorder and 6239 (2.7%) had major depression. SMI was associated with higher 30-day, 1-year and 5-year mortality and risk of further MI and stroke. Thirty-day mortality was higher for schizophrenia (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.64–2.30), bipolar disorder (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.26–1.86) and major depression (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.23–1.40). Odds ratios for 1-year and 5-year mortality were larger for all three conditions. Revascularisation rates were lower in schizophrenia (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.48–0.67), bipolar disorder (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56–0.85) and major depression (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.73–0.83). Mortality and revascularisation disparities persisted from 1991 to 2014, with absolute mortality disparities more apparent for MIs that occurred around 70 years of age, the overall mean age of MI. Women with major depression had a greater reduction in revascularisation than men with major depression. Conclusions: There are sustained SMI disparities in MI intervention and prognosis. There is an urgent need to understand and tackle the reasons for these disparities.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Mercer, Professor Stewart and Smith, Professor Daniel
Authors: Fleetwood, K., Wild, S. H., Smith, D. J., Mercer, S. W., Licence, K., Sudlow, C. L.M., and Jackson, C. A.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > Mental Health and Wellbeing
Journal Name:BMC Medicine
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1741-7015
ISSN (Online):1741-7015
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in BMC Medicine 19:67
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons licence

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
302957Mental Health Data PathfinderDaniel SmithMedical Research Council (MRC)MC_PC_17217HW - Mental Health and Wellbeing