Classification and characterisation of livestock production systems in northern Tanzania

de Glanville, W. A. et al. (2020) Classification and characterisation of livestock production systems in northern Tanzania. PLoS ONE, 15(12), e0229478. (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0229478) (PMID:33378382) (PMCID:PMC7773236)

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Abstract

Livestock keepers in sub-Saharan Africa face a range of pressures, including climate change, land loss, restrictive policies, and population increase. Widespread adaptation in response can lead to the emergence of new, non-traditional typologies of livestock production. We sought to characterise livestock production systems in two administrative regions in northern Tanzania, an area undergoing rapid social, economic, and environmental change. Questionnaire and spatial data were collected from 404 livestock-keeping households in 21 villages in Arusha and Manyara Regions in 2016. Multiple factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to classify households into livestock production systems based on household-level characteristics. Adversity-based indicators of vulnerability, including reports of hunger, illness, and livestock, land and crop losses were compared between production systems. Three distinct clusters emerged through this process. The ethnic, environmental and livestock management characteristics of households in each cluster broadly mapped onto traditional definitions of ‘pastoral’, ‘agro-pastoral’ and ‘smallholder’ livestock production in the study area, suggesting that this quantitative classification system is complementary to more qualitative classification methods. Our approach allowed us to demonstrate a diversity in typologies of livestock production at small spatial scales, with almost half of study villages comprising more than one production system. We also found indicators of change within livestock production systems, most notably the adoption of crop agriculture in the majority of pastoral households. System-level heterogeneities in vulnerability were evident, with agro-pastoral households most likely to report hunger and pastoral households most likely to report illness in people and livestock, and livestock losses. We demonstrate that livestock production systems can provide context for assessing household vulnerability in northern Tanzania. Policy initiatives to improve household and community well-being should recognise the continuing diversity of traditional livestock production systems in northern Tanzania, including the diversity that can exist at small spatial scales.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Sharp, Professor Jo and De Glanville, Dr William and Johnson, Dr Paul and Halliday, Dr Jo and Allan, Dr Kathryn and Uzzell, Mr Christopher and Cleaveland, Professor Sarah and Davis, Dr Alicia and Claxton, Dr John
Creator Roles:
de Glanville, W. A.Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – original draft, Writing – review and editing
Davis, A.Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review and editing
Allan, K. J.Conceptualization, Writing – review and editing
Claxton, J. R.Project administration, Writing – review and editing
Halliday, J. E.B.Conceptualization, Writing – review and editing
Johnson, P. C.D.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Uzzell, C. B.Data curation, Writing – review and editing
Sharp, J.Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Writing – review and editing
Cleaveland, S.Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Supervision, Writing – review and editing
Authors: de Glanville, W. A., Davis, A., Allan, K. J., Buza, J., Claxton, J. R., Crump, J. A., Halliday, J. E.B., Johnson, P. C.D., Kibona, T. J., Mmbaga, B. T., Swai, E. S., Uzzell, C. B., Yoder, J., Sharp, J., and Cleaveland, S.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
College of Science and Engineering > School of Geographical and Earth Sciences
College of Social Sciences > School of Social and Political Sciences > Sociology Anthropology and Applied Social Sciences
Journal Name:PLoS ONE
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1932-6203
ISSN (Online):1932-6203
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 de Glanville et al.
First Published:First published in PLoS ONE 15(12): e0229478
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License
Data DOI:10.5525/gla.researchdata.1098

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
190825Social, economic and environmental drivers of zoonoses in Tanzania (SEEDZ)Sarah CleavelandBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/L018926/1Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
190785Molecular epidemology of brucellosis in northern TanzaniaDaniel HaydonBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/L018845/1Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
165842Leptospirosis in Tanzania; a study of the role of rodents in an emerging public health problem.Sarah CleavelandWellcome Trust (WELLCOTR)096400/Z/11/ZInstitute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine