Penile cancer and the HPV attributable fraction in Scotland; a retrospective cohort study

Cuschieri, K., Pan, J., O Donnell, M., Kirkwood, K., Kavanagh, K., Pollock, K.G., Bhatia, R., Graham, S.V. and Wakeham, K. (2021) Penile cancer and the HPV attributable fraction in Scotland; a retrospective cohort study. Journal of Clinical Virology, 134, 104717. (doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104717) (PMID:33360857)

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Abstract

Background: Penile cancer (PeC) is a highly morbid disease which is rising in certain settings including Scotland. A component of PeC is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) although its influence on clinical outcomes is debatable as is whether the fraction attributable to HPV is increasing. Methods: A total of 122 archived tissue samples derived from patients diagnosed with PeC between 2006–2015 were collated and tested for HPV DNA using molecular PCR. HPV positivity was determined for the overall population and by calendar year of diagnosis to determine any temporal trends. The influence of age, deprivation, smoking, tumour stage and tumour grade on likelihood of HPV positivity was determined by logistic regression. In addition, the influence of HPV status and the other clinical and demographics variables on all-cause death and death from PeC was assessed. Results: HPV was detected in 43 % (95 % CI: 34–52) of penile cancers and the majority of infections were HPV 16. The HPV component of PeC did not increase over the time period (p for linear trend – 0.226). No demographic or clinical variables were associated with HPV positivity neither was HPV status associated with improved all-cause or cancer-specific survival during the follow up period. Conclusion: The rise in PeC in Scotland may not be attributable to a rise in HPV-associated cancer; this is consistent with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in the UK where there is an increase in both HPV positive and negative cancer. This work calls for a larger multi centre study to enable further detailed investigation into the implications of HPV infection in PeC.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Graham, Professor Sheila and Wakeham, Dr Katie and Cuschieri, Dr Kate and Pollock, Dr Kevin
Authors: Cuschieri, K., Pan, J., O Donnell, M., Kirkwood, K., Kavanagh, K., Pollock, K.G., Bhatia, R., Graham, S.V., and Wakeham, K.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cancer Sciences
Journal Name:Journal of Clinical Virology
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1386-6532
ISSN (Online):1873-5967
Published Online:13 December 2020
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
First Published:First published in Journal of Clinical Virology 134:104717
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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