Vancomycin wrap for anterior cruciate ligament surgery

Atherton, C. M. et al. (2021) Vancomycin wrap for anterior cruciate ligament surgery. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(2), pp. 426-434. (doi: 10.1177/0363546520981570) (PMID:33406371) (PMCID:PMC7859666)

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Abstract

Background: The use of the vancomycin wrap to pretreat the hamstring graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has grown in popularity since it was first described in 2012 and has significantly reduced rates of postoperative infection. However, it remains unknown if this antibiotic treatment affects the molecular composition of the graft. Purpose: To establish whether treatment with vancomycin at 5 mg/mL, the most commonly used concentration, alters the molecular function of the hamstring graft in ACLR. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Surplus hamstring tendon collected after routine ACLR surgery was used for in vitro cell culture and ex vivo tissue experiments. Vancomycin was used at 5 mg/mL in RPMI or saline diluent to treat cells and tendon tissue, respectively, with diluent control conditions. Cell viability at 30, 60, and 120 minutes was assessed via colorimetric viability assay. Tendon cells treated with control and experimental conditions for 1 hour was evaluated using semiquantitative reverse transcription analysis, immunohistochemistry staining, and protein quantitation via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for changes in apoptotic, matrix, and inflammatory gene and protein expression. Results: Vancomycin treatment at 5 mg/mL significantly reduced tenocyte viability in vitro after 60 minutes of treatment (P < .05); however, this was not sustained at 120 minutes. Vancomycin-treated tendon tissue showed no significant increase in apoptotic gene expression, or apoptotic protein levels in tissue or supernatant, ex vivo. Vancomycin was associated with a reduction in inflammatory proteins from treated tendon supernatants (IL-6; P < .05). Conclusion: Vancomycin did not significantly alter the molecular structure of the hamstring graft. Reductions in matrix protein and inflammatory cytokine release point to a potential beneficial effect of vancomycin in generating a homeostatic environment. Clinical Relevance: Vancomycin ACL wrap does not alter the molecular structure of the ACL hamstring graft and may improve graft integrity.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:McInnes, Professor Iain and McCall, Kathryn and Atherton, Caroline and Millar, Professor Neal and Akbar, Mr Moeed and Garcia Melchor, Dr Emma
Authors: Atherton, C. M., Spencer, S. J., McCall, K., Garcia-Melchor, E., Leach, W. J., Mullen, M., Rooney, B. P., Walker, C., McInnes, I. B., Millar, N. L., and Akbar, M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:American Journal of Sports Medicine
Publisher:SAGE Publications
ISSN:0363-5465
ISSN (Online):1552-3365
Published Online:06 January 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in American Journal of Sports Medicine 49(2):426-434
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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