Is older age associated with COVID-19 mortality in the absence of other risk factors? General population cohort study of 470,034 participants

Ho, F. K. et al. (2020) Is older age associated with COVID-19 mortality in the absence of other risk factors? General population cohort study of 470,034 participants. PLoS ONE, 15(11), e0241824. (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241824) (PMID:33152008) (PMCID:PMC7644030)

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Abstract

Introduction: Older people have been reported to be at higher risk of COVID-19 mortality. This study explored the factors mediating this association and whether older age was associated with increased mortality risk in the absence of other risk factors. Methods: In UK Biobank, a population cohort study, baseline data were linked to COVID-19 deaths. Poisson regression was used to study the association between current age and COVID-19 mortality. Results: Among eligible participants, 438 (0.09%) died of COVID-19. Current age was associated exponentially with COVID-19 mortality. Overall, participants aged ≥75 years were at 13-fold (95% CI 9.13–17.85) mortality risk compared with those <65 years. Low forced expiratory volume in 1 second, high systolic blood pressure, low handgrip strength, and multiple long-term conditions were significant mediators, and collectively explained 39.3% of their excess risk. The associations between these risk factors and COVID-19 mortality were stronger among older participants. Participants aged ≥75 without additional risk factors were at 4-fold risk (95% CI 1.57–9.96, P = 0.004) compared with all participants aged <65 years. Conclusions: Higher COVID-19 mortality among older adults was partially explained by other risk factors. ‘Healthy’ older adults were at much lower risk. Nonetheless, older age was an independent risk factor for COVID-19 mortality.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Hastie, Dr Claire and Jani, Dr Bhautesh and Gill, Professor Jason and Ho, Dr Frederick and Welsh, Dr Paul and Foster, Dr Hamish and Mair, Professor Frances and Niedzwiedz, Dr Claire and O'Donnell, Professor Kate and Katikireddi, Professor Vittal and Celis, Dr Carlos and Gray, Dr Stuart and Pell, Professor Jill and Mackay, Professor Daniel and Petermann, Mrs Fanny and Sattar, Professor Naveed
Creator Roles:
Ho, F. K.Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – original draft
Petermann-Rocha, F.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Gray, S. R.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Jani, B. D.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Katikireddi, S. V.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Niedzwiedz, C. L.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Foster, H.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Hastie, C. E.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Mackay, D. F.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Gill, J. M.R.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
O'Donnell, C.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Welsh, P.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Mair, F.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Sattar, N.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Celis-Morales, C. A.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Pell, J. P.Conceptualization, Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Authors: Ho, F. K., Petermann-Rocha, F., Gray, S. R., Jani, B. D., Katikireddi, S. V., Niedzwiedz, C. L., Foster, H., Hastie, C. E., Mackay, D. F., Gill, J. M.R., O'Donnell, C., Welsh, P., Mair, F., Sattar, N., Celis-Morales, C. A., and Pell, J. P.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > General Practice and Primary Care
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > MRC/CSO SPHSU
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > Public Health
Journal Name:PLoS ONE
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1932-6203
ISSN (Online):1932-6203
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 Ho et al.
First Published:First published in PLoS ONE 15(11): e0241824
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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