Genetic basis of antigenic variation of SAT3 foot-and-mouth disease virus

Maake, L., Harvey, W., Rotherham, L., Opperman, P. A., Theron, J., Reeve, R. and Maree, F. F. (2020) Genetic basis of antigenic variation of SAT3 foot-and-mouth disease virus. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 7, 568. (doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00568)

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Abstract

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be a major burden for livestock owners in endemic countries and a threat to FMD-free countries. The epidemiology and control of FMD in Africa is complicated by the presence of five clinically indistinguishable serotypes. Of these the Southern African Territory (SAT) type 3 has received limited attention, likely due to its restricted distribution and it being less frequently detected. We investigated the intratypic genetic variation of the capsid-coding region of 22 SAT3 viruses and confirmed the geographical distribution of four topotypes. The antigenic cross-reactivity of 12 SAT3 viruses against reference antisera was assessed by performing virus neutralization assays and calculating the r1-values, which is a ratio of the heterologous neutralizing titre to the homologous neutralizing titre. Interestingly, cross-reactivity between the SAT3 reference antisera and many SAT3 viruses was notably high (r1-values > 0.3). Moreover, some of the SAT3 viruses reacted more strongly to the reference sera compared to the homologous virus (r1-values > 1). An increase in the avidity of the reference antisera to the heterologous viruses could explain some of the higher neutralization titres observed. Subsequently, we used the antigenic variability data and corresponding genetic and structural data to predict naturally occurring amino acid positions that correlate with antigenic changes. We identified four unique residues associated with a change in cross-reactivity, with two sites that change simultaneously. The analysis of antigenic differences is critical for surveillance and proper vaccine selection for effective control or the design of vaccine antigens tailored for specific geographic localities, using reverse genetics.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:BBSRC also funded RR under grant BB/R012679/1.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Reeve, Dr Richard and Harvey, Dr William
Authors: Maake, L., Harvey, W., Rotherham, L., Opperman, P. A., Theron, J., Reeve, R., and Maree, F. F.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
Journal Name:Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Publisher:Frontiers Media
ISSN:2297-1769
ISSN (Online):2297-1769
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 Maake, Harvey, Rotherham, Opperman, Theron, Reeve and Maree
First Published:First published in Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7:568
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons license

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
165111Improving the quality of FMD (Foot-and-mouth disease) vaccines by understanding the correlation of vaccine-induced protection with humoral and cellular inmmune responsesRichard ReeveBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/H009175/1Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
302632Using a comparative One Health approach to investigate the structural basis of antigenic variation among human and avian influenza virusesJill PellMedical Research Council (MRC)MR/R024758/1Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
BB/R012679/1