Additively manufactured polyetheretherketone (PEEK) with carbon nanostructure reinforcement for biomedical structural applications

Alam, F., Varadarajan, K. M., Koo, J. H., Wardle, B. L. and Kumar, S. (2020) Additively manufactured polyetheretherketone (PEEK) with carbon nanostructure reinforcement for biomedical structural applications. Advanced Engineering Materials, (doi: 10.1002/adem.202000483) (Early Online Publication)

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Abstract

The study is focused on carbon nanostructure (CNS), including both carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), reinforcement of medical‐grade polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and in‐vitro bioactivity for biomedical structural applications. CNS/PEEK scaffolds and bulk specimens, realized via fused filament fabrication (FFF) additive manufacturing are assessed primarily in the low‐strain linear‐elastic mechanical regime. 3D printed PEEK nanocomposites are found to have enhanced mechanical properties in all cases while maintaining the desired degree of crystallinity in the range of 30‐33%. A synergetic effect of the CNS and sulfonation towards bioactivity is observed– apatite growth in simulated body fluid increased by 57 and 77%, for CNT and GNP reinforcement, respectively, doubling the effect of sulfonation and exhibiting a fully‐grown mushroom‐like apatite morphology. Further, CNT‐ and GNP‐reinforced sulfonated PEEK recovers much of the mechanical losses in modulus and strength due to sulfonation, in one case (GNP reinforcement) increasing the yield and ultimate strengths beyond the (non‐sulfonated) printed PEEK. Additive manufacturing of PEEK with CNS reinforcement demonstrated here opens up many design opportunities for structural and biomedical applications, including personalized bioactivated surfaces for bone scaffolds, with further potential arising from the electrically‐conductive nanoengineered PEEK material towards smart and multifunctional structures.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Early Online Publication
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Kumar, Dr Shan
Authors: Alam, F., Varadarajan, K. M., Koo, J. H., Wardle, B. L., and Kumar, S.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Systems Power and Energy
Journal Name:Advanced Engineering Materials
Publisher:Wiley
ISSN:1438-1656
ISSN (Online):1527-2648
Published Online:09 July 2020
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 The Authors
First Published:First published in Advanced Engineering Materials 2020
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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