Understanding how much TV is too much: a non-linear analysis of the association between television viewing time and adverse health outcomes

Foster, H. M.E. , Ho, F. K., Sattar, N. , Welsh, P. , Pell, J. P. , Gill, J. M.R. , Gray, S. R. and Celis-Morales, C. A. (2020) Understanding how much TV is too much: a non-linear analysis of the association between television viewing time and adverse health outcomes. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 95(11), pp. 2429-2441. (doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.04.035) (PMID:32713607)

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Abstract

Objective: To inform potential guideline development, we investigated nonlinear associations between television viewing time (TV time) and adverse health outcomes. Methods: From 2006 to 2010, 490,966 UK Biobank participants, aged 37 to 73 years, were recruited. They were followed from 2006 to 2018. Nonlinear associations between self-reported TV time (hours per day) and outcomes explored using penalized cubic splines in Cox proportional hazards adjusted for demographics and lifestyle. Population-attributable and potential impact fractions were calculated to contextualize population-level health outcomes associated with different TV time levels. Nonlinear isotemporal substitution analyses were used to investigate substituting TV time with alternative activities. Primary outcomes were mortality: all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer; incidence: CVD and cancer; secondary outcomes were incident myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure and colon, lung, breast, and prostate cancer. Results: Those with noncommunicable disease (109,867 [22.4%]), CVD (32,243 [6.6%]), and cancer (37,81 [7.7%]) at baseline were excluded from all-cause mortality, CVD, and cancer analyses, respectively. After 7.0 years (mortality) and 6.2 years (disease incidence) mean follow-up, there were 10,306 (2.7%) deaths, 24,388 (5.3%) CVD events, and 39,121 (8.7%) cancer events. Associations between TV time and all-cause and CVD mortality were curvilinear (Pnon-linear ≤.003), with lowest risk observed <2 hours per day. Theoretically, 8.64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.60-10.73) of CVD mortality is attributable to TV time. Limiting TV time to 2 hours per day might have prevented, or at least delayed, 7.97% (95% CI, 5.54-10.70) of CVD deaths. Substituting TV time with sleeping, walking, or moderate or vigorous physical activity was associated with reduced risk for all outcomes when baseline levels of substitute activities were low. Conclusion: TV time is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. Future guidelines could suggest limiting TV time to less than 2 hours per day to reduce most of the associated adverse health events.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Celis, Dr Carlos and Gray, Dr Stuart and Gill, Professor Jason and Ho, Dr Frederick and Welsh, Dr Paul and Foster, Dr Hamish and Pell, Professor Jill and Sattar, Professor Naveed
Authors: Foster, H. M.E., Ho, F. K., Sattar, N., Welsh, P., Pell, J. P., Gill, J. M.R., Gray, S. R., and Celis-Morales, C. A.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > General Practice and Primary Care
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > Public Health
Journal Name:Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0025-6196
ISSN (Online):1942-5546
Published Online:23 July 2020
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
First Published:First published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings 95(11): 2429-2441
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy
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