Inflammation and salt in young adults: the African-PREDICT study

Crouch, S. H., Botha-Le Roux, S., Delles, C. , Graham, L. A. and Schutte, A. E. (2021) Inflammation and salt in young adults: the African-PREDICT study. European Journal of Nutrition, 60(2), pp. 873-882. (doi: 10.1007/s00394-020-02292-3) (PMID:32494865) (PMCID:PMC7900065)

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Abstract

Purpose: Low-grade inflammation and a diet high in salt are both established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. High potassium (K+) intake was found to counter increase in blood pressure due to high salt intake and may potentially also have protective anti-inflammatory effects. To better understand these interactions under normal physiological conditions, we investigated the relationships between 22 inflammatory mediators with 24-h urinary K+ in young healthy adults stratified by low, medium and high salt intake (salt tertiles). We stratified by ethnicity due to potential salt sensitivity in black populations. Methods: In 991 healthy black (N = 457) and white (N = 534) adults, aged 20–30 years, with complete data for 24-h urinary sodium and K+, we analysed blood samples for 22 inflammatory mediators. Results: We found no differences in inflammatory mediators between low-, mid- and high-sodium tertiles in either the black or white groups. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses in white adults, we found only in the lowest salt tertile that K+ associated negatively with pro-inflammatory mediators, namely interferon gamma, interleukin (IL) -7, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-23 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (all p ≤ 0.046). In the black population, we found no independent associations between K+ and any inflammatory mediator. Conclusion: In healthy white adults, 24-h urinary K+ associated independently and negatively with specific pro-inflammatory mediators, but only in those with a daily salt intake less than 6.31 g, suggesting K+ to play a protective, anti-inflammatory role in a low-sodium environment. No similar associations were found in young healthy black adults.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Graham, Dr Lesley and Delles, Professor Christian
Authors: Crouch, S. H., Botha-Le Roux, S., Delles, C., Graham, L. A., and Schutte, A. E.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:European Journal of Nutrition
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:1436-6207
ISSN (Online):1436-6215
Published Online:03 June 2020
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 The Authors
First Published:First published in European Journal of Nutrition 60(2): 873-882
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
190814BHF centre of excellenceRhian TouyzBritish Heart Foundation (BHF)RE/13/5/30177Institute of Cardiovascular & Medical Sciences
303944BHF Centre of ExcellenceRhian TouyzBritish Heart Foundation (BHF)RE/18/6/34217CAMS - Cardiovascular Science