Estimating acute human leptospirosis incidence in northern Tanzania using sentinel site and community behavioural surveillance

Maze, M. J. et al. (2020) Estimating acute human leptospirosis incidence in northern Tanzania using sentinel site and community behavioural surveillance. Zoonoses and Public Health, 67(5), pp. 496-505. (doi: 10.1111/zph.12712) (PMID:32374085) (PMCID:PMC7497209)

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Abstract

Many infectious diseases lack robust estimates of incidence from endemic areas, and extrapolating incidence when there are few locations with data remains a major challenge in burden of disease estimation. We sought to combine sentinel surveillance with community behavioural surveillance to estimate leptospirosis incidence. We administered a questionnaire gathering responses on established locally relevant leptospirosis risk factors and recent fever to livestock‐owning community members across six districts in northern Tanzania and applied a logistic regression model predicting leptospirosis risk on the basis of behavioural factors that had been previously developed among patients with fever in Moshi Municipal and Moshi Rural Districts. We aggregated probability of leptospirosis by district and estimated incidence in each district by standardizing probabilities to those previously estimated for Moshi Districts. We recruited 286 community participants: Hai District (n = 11), Longido District (59), Monduli District (56), Moshi Municipal District (103), Moshi Rural District (44) and Rombo District (13). The mean predicted probability of leptospirosis by district was Hai 0.029 (0.005, 0.095), Longido 0.071 (0.009, 0.235), Monduli 0.055 (0.009, 0.206), Moshi Rural 0.014 (0.002, 0.049), Moshi Municipal 0.015 (0.004, 0.048) and Rombo 0.031 (0.006, 0.121). We estimated the annual incidence (upper and lower bounds of estimate) per 100,000 people of human leptospirosis among livestock owners by district as Hai 35 (6, 114), Longido 85 (11, 282), Monduli 66 (11, 247), Moshi Rural 17 (2, 59), Moshi Municipal 18 (5, 58) and Rombo 47 (7, 145). Use of community behavioural surveillance may be a useful tool for extrapolating disease incidence beyond sentinel surveillance sites.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:De Glanville, Dr William and Allan, Dr Kathryn and Cleaveland, Professor Sarah
Authors: Maze, M. J., Sharples, K. J., Allan, K. J., Biggs, H. M., Cash-Goldwasser, S., Galloway, R. L., De Glanville, W. A., Halliday, J. E.B., Kazwala, R. R., Kibona, T., Mmbaga, B. T., Maro, V. P., Rubach, M. P., Cleaveland, S., and Crump, J. A.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
Journal Name:Zoonoses and Public Health
Publisher:Wiley
ISSN:1863-1959
ISSN (Online):1863-2378
Published Online:06 May 2020
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 The Authors
First Published:First published in Zoonoses and Public Health 67(5): 496-505
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
190437Impact, ecology and social determinants of bacterial zoonoses in northern TanzaniaSarah CleavelandBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/J010367/1Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
190825Social, economic and environmental drivers of zoonoses in Tanzania (SEEDZ)Sarah CleavelandBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/L018926/1Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
190821Hazards associated with zoonotic enteric pathogens in emerging livestock meat pathways (HAZEL)Ruth ZadoksBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/L017679/1Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
190785Molecular epidemology of brucellosis in northern TanzaniaDaniel HaydonBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/L018845/1Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
165842Leptospirosis in Tanzania; a study of the role of rodents in an emerging public health problem.Sarah CleavelandWellcome Trust (WELLCOTR)096400/Z/11/ZInstitute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine