RF and Network Signature-based Machine Learning on Detection of Wireless Controlled Drone

Seow, C. K. and Teoh, Y. J. J. (2019) RF and Network Signature-based Machine Learning on Detection of Wireless Controlled Drone. In: 2019 PhotonIcs & Electromagnetics Research Symposium - Spring (PIERS-Spring), Rome, Italy, 17-20 Jun 2019, pp. 408-417. ISBN 9781728134031 (doi:10.1109/PIERS-Spring46901.2019.9017231)

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Abstract

Over the years, drone usage have become an increasing part of the ever-connected society that we are currently living in. Its usages have proliferated beyond the military sector to various commercial and consumer activities such as package delivery, disaster relief, agriculture and ¯lming. With the rise of Wi-Fi controlled drone. Wi-Fi controlled drone has increased its popularity for personal use due to its affordability, and the ease of operating the drone through smart-devices like mobile phone, tablets and computers. As such, this increases the likelihood of drone presence in various environments, especially in critical government infrastructure, leading to various privacy and security concern by the authorities and the public with malicious intent. Therefore, various signature-based methodology of drone detection has emerged such as the visual and Radio Frequency (RF) signature-based detection method. Visual signature-based detection relies on camera capture and image processing but this is an expensive approach. Whereas, RF signature-based detection relies on the identi¯cation of the emission of RF signal by the drone. However, since most commercial electronics devices were built based on Wi-Fi technology, the differentiation of the RF signals transmitted between a drone or a standard Wi-Fi device in a crowded Wi-Fi environment such as a school campus or city area is an challenging task. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning approach that leverages on the identified unique signatures of Wi-Fi devices in terms of Radio Frequency (RF) and network packets mea- surement to differentiate the presence of Wi-Fi drone and standard Wi-Fi devices in an urban setting. Furthermore, we also carried out a meticulous pre-processing procedure and a better training scheme of using Stratified K-Fold Cross-Validation (SKFCV), to enhance the richness in the data signature and fully exploit the permutation of the data during training respectively for better performance of the ML models. Two supervised classi¯cation Machine Learning (ML) models, namely the Logistic Regression (LR), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were applied using the joint data measurements to identify the presence of drone in dense Wi-Fi environment. The experimental results have shown that the proposed novel ML approach of using both RF and network measurement signatures coupled with the pre-processing and training methodology on LR and ANN ML models have outperformed the traditional RF signature-based drone detection ML accuracy results by 15.1% and 21.63% respectively in a crowded Wi-Fi environment.

Item Type:Conference Proceedings
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Seow, Dr Chee Kiat
Authors: Seow, C. K., and Teoh, Y. J. J.
Subjects:T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Computing Science
ISSN:1559-9450
ISBN:9781728134031
Published Online:02 March 2020
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 IEEE
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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