Cryo-electron tomography reveals four-membrane architecture of the Plasmodium apicoplast

Lemgruber Soares, L. , Kudryashev, M., Dekiwadia, C., Riglar, D. T., Baum, J., Stahlberg, H., Ralph, S. A. and Frischknecht, F. (2013) Cryo-electron tomography reveals four-membrane architecture of the Plasmodium apicoplast. Malaria Journal, 12, 25. (doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-25) (PMID:23331966) (PMCID:PMC3662607)

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Abstract

Background The apicoplast is a plastid organelle derived from a secondary endosymbiosis, containing biosynthetic pathways essential for the survival of apicomplexan parasites. The Toxoplasma apicoplast clearly possesses four membranes but in related Plasmodium spp. the apicoplast has variably been reported to have either three or four membranes. Methods Cryo-electron tomography was employed to image merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei frozen in their near-native state. Three-dimensional reconstructions revealed the number of apicoplast membranes and the association of the apicoplast with other organelles. Routine transmission electron microscopy of parasites preserved by high-pressure freezing followed by freeze substitution techniques was also used to analyse apicoplast morphology. Results Cryo-preserved parasites showed clearly four membranes surrounding the apicoplast. A wider gap between the second and third apicoplast membranes was frequently observed. The apicoplast was found in close proximity to the nucleus and to the rhoptries. The apicoplast matrix showed ribosome-sized particles and membranous whorls. Conclusions: The Plasmodium apicoplast possesses four membranes, as do the apicoplasts of other apicomplexan parasites. This is consistent with a four-membraned secondary endosymbiotic plastid ancestor.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Lemgruber Soares, Dr Leandro
Authors: Lemgruber Soares, L., Kudryashev, M., Dekiwadia, C., Riglar, D. T., Baum, J., Stahlberg, H., Ralph, S. A., and Frischknecht, F.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Malaria Journal
Publisher:BMC
ISSN:1475-2875
ISSN (Online):1475-2875
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2013 Lemgruber et al., Reproduced under a Creative Commons licence, First published in Malaria Journal 12:25

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