Rebel governance in de facto states

Florea, A. (2020) Rebel governance in de facto states. European Journal of International Relations, 26(4), pp. 1004-1031. (doi: 10.1177/1354066120919481)

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De facto states, such as Somaliland (Somalia), are unrecognized separatist enclaves that display characteristics of statehood but lack an international legal status. To acquire domestic and external legitimacy, these actors engage in a wide range of governance practices: they set up military and police forces; executive, legislative, and judicial branches; hospitals; schools; banks; or social security networks. In spite of the obvious gains that can be accrued through the establishment of a complex governance architecture, de facto states exhibit great variation in the range of statelike institutions that they build: some, like Luhansk People’s Republic (Ukraine), put together a rudimentary governance apparatus, while others, like Transnistria (Moldova), manage to construct a complex system of rule. What explains the variation in governance practices across these separatist enclaves? Using original data on governance institutions across all de facto states (1945–2016), this study offers an empirical examination of the key factors that shape separatists’ incentives to supply governance. The findings reveal that de facto state separatists are less likely to provide governance when they have access to lootable mineral resources but are more likely to do so when they receive external military support, when peacekeepers are present, when they have access to relatively immobile assets, when they adopt a Marxist ideology, and when they control the territory for a long time. The findings help us better understand the conditions under which armed nonstate actors supplant sovereign states as de facto authorities and successfully institutionalize their rule.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:The author disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: Support from the British Academy (SG171035) and the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland (70580) for the collection of data on the post-2011 de facto states is gratefully acknowledged.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Florea, Dr Adrian
Authors: Florea, A.
College/School:College of Social Sciences > School of Social and Political Sciences > Central and East European Studies
Journal Name:European Journal of International Relations
Publisher:SAGE Publications
ISSN (Online):1460-3713
Published Online:06 May 2020
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 The Authors
First Published:First published in European Journal of International Relations 26(4): 1004-1031
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
300710Dynamics of Rebel Governance in Kosovo and Northern CyprusAdrian FloreaBritish Academy (BRITACAD)SG171035S&PS - Central and East European Studies
174327De Facto States in International Politics (2012-2015)Adrian FloreaThe Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland (CARNEGTR)70580S&PS - Central and East European Studies