Propagule behavior and parasite transmission

Lamberton, P. H.L. , Norton, A. J., Webster, J. P. and Wilson, K. (2019) Propagule behavior and parasite transmission. In: Choe, J. C. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior [2nd ed.]. Elsevier, pp. 646-652. ISBN 9780128132524 (doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-809633-8.01187-0)

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Abstract

Many parasites with complex, indirect, life-cycles involve one or more free-living propagule stages, such as eggs and larvae, which serve in dissemination and transmission between host species. The larvae are often non-feeding and obtain their energy through stored glycogen. These limited energy supplies provide strong constraints and selective pressures to rapidly disperse, and locate, and penetrate a suitable host to complete the life-cycle. Host location can either be achieved by direct attraction to the host, or to a habitat and/or temporal space which is likely to contain the host. Mechanisms for these attractions include kinesis or taxis and are often innate behaviors in response to environmental and/or biological cues. Parasite larval behaviors often involve complex interactions between different stimuli and trade-offs occur between host-seeking and energy-saving traits. These result in a vast array of techniques which aid dispersion and successful transmission. The type of hosts that larvae are required to infect can vary greatly even with a single life-cycle, and parasites have thus evolved complex species- and stage-specific behavioral traits to aid transmission. These are discussed here, with examples focusing on trematode species, where the majority of research has been carried out to date, predominantly due to their medical and veterinary importance.

Item Type:Book Sections
Status:Published
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Lamberton, Dr Poppy
Authors: Lamberton, P. H.L., Norton, A. J., Webster, J. P., and Wilson, K.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
Publisher:Elsevier
ISBN:9780128132524

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