Nrf2 in early vascular ageing: calcification, senescence and therapy

Arefin, S., Buchanan, S., Hobson, S., Steinmetz, J., Alsalhi, S., Shiels, P. G. , Kublickiene, K. and Stenvinkel, P. (2020) Nrf2 in early vascular ageing: calcification, senescence and therapy. Clinica Chimica Acta, 505, pp. 108-118. (doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2020.02.026) (PMID:32097628)

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Abstract

Under normal physiological conditions, free radical generation and antioxidant defences are balanced, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) usually act as secondary messengers in a plethora of biological processes. However, when this balance is impaired, oxidative stress develops due to imbalanced redox homeostasis resulting in cellular damage. Oxidative stress is now recognized as a trigger of cellular senescence, which is associated with multiple chronic 'burden of lifestyle' diseases, including atherosclerosis, type-2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and vascular calcification; all of which possess signs of early vascular ageing. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), termed the master regulator of antioxidant responses, is a transcription factor found to be frequently dysregulated in conditions characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent evidence suggests that activation of Nrf2 may be beneficial in protecting against vascular senescence and calcification. Both natural and synthetic Nrf2 agonists have been introduced as promising drug classes in different phases of clinical trials. However, overexpression of the Nrf2 pathway has also been linked to tumorigenesis, which highlights the requirement for further understanding of pathways involving Nrf2 activity, especially in the context of cellular senescence and vascular calcification. Therefore, comprehensive translational pre-clinical and clinical studies addressing the targeting capabilities of Nrf2 agonists are urgently required. The present review discusses the impact of Nrf2 in senescence and calcification in early vascular ageing, with focus on the potential clinical implications of Nrf2 agonists and non-pharmacological Nrf2 therapeutics.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This work was supported by grants from Swedish Research Council grant no. 2018–00932; Strategic Research Program in Diabetes at Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; funding from the European Union (INTRICARE and CaReSyAn); CIMED (centrum för innovativ medicin); Njurfonden, Sweden; Hjärt lungfonden, Sweden.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Buchanan, Dr Sarah and Shiels, Professor Paul
Authors: Arefin, S., Buchanan, S., Hobson, S., Steinmetz, J., Alsalhi, S., Shiels, P. G., Kublickiene, K., and Stenvinkel, P.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cancer Sciences
Journal Name:Clinica Chimica Acta
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0009-8981
ISSN (Online):1873-3492
Published Online:22 February 2020
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V.
First Published:First published in Clinica Chimica Acta 505:108-118
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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