Associations of fat and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality: prospective cohort study of UK Biobank participants

Ho, F. K. et al. (2020) Associations of fat and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality: prospective cohort study of UK Biobank participants. British Medical Journal, 368(8238), m688. (doi: 10.1136/bmj.m688) (PMID:32188587)

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association of macronutrient intake with all cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the implications for dietary advice. DESIGN:Prospective population based study. SETTING:UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS:195 658 of the 502 536 participants in UK Biobank completed at least one dietary questionnaire and were included in the analyses. Diet was assessed using Oxford WebQ, a web based 24 hour recall questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were estimated using standard methodology. Cox proportional models with penalised cubic splines were used to study non-linear associations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:All cause mortality and incidence of CVD. RESULTS:4780 (2.4%) participants died over a mean 10.6 (range 9.4-13.9) years of follow-up, and 948 (0.5%) and 9776 (5.0%) experienced fatal and non-fatal CVD events, respectively, over a mean 9.7 (range 8.5-13.0) years of follow-up. Non-linear associations were found for many macronutrients. Carbohydrate intake showed a non-linear association with mortality; no association at 20-50% of total energy intake but a positive association at 50-70% of energy intake (3.14 v 2.75 per 1000 person years, average hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.28 (60-70% v 50% of energy)). A similar pattern was observed for sugar but not for starch or fibre. A higher intake of monounsaturated fat (2.94 v 3.50 per 1000 person years, average hazard ratio 0.58, 0.51 to 0.66 (20-25% v 5% of energy)) and lower intake of polyunsaturated fat (2.66 v 3.04 per 1000 person years, 0.78, 0.75 to 0.81 (5-7% v 12% of energy)) and saturated fat (2.66 v 3.59 per 1000 person years, 0.67, 0.62 to 0.73 (5-10% v 20% of energy)) were associated with a lower risk of mortality. A dietary risk matrix was developed to illustrate how dietary advice can be given based on current intake. CONCLUSION:Many associations between macronutrient intake and health outcomes are non-linear. Thus dietary advice could be tailored to current intake. Dietary guidelines on macronutrients (eg, carbohydrate) should also take account of differential associations of its components (eg, sugar and starch).

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Waddell, Heather and Celis, Dr Carlos and Gray, Dr Stuart and Gill, Professor Jason and Ho, Dr Frederick and Welsh, Dr Paul and Anderson, Dr Jana and Foster, Dr Hamish and Pell, Professor Jill and Petermann, Mrs Fanny and Sattar, Professor Naveed and Lyall, Dr Donald
Authors: Ho, F. K., Gray, S. R., Welsh, P., Petermann-Rocha, F., Foster, H., Waddell, H., Anderson, J., Lyall, D., Sattar, N., Gill, J. M.R., Mathers, J. C., Pell, J. P., and Celis-Morales, C.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > General Practice and Primary Care
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > Public Health
Journal Name:British Medical Journal
Publisher:BMJ Publishing Group
ISSN:0959-535X
ISSN (Online):1756-1833
Published Online:18 March 2020
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2019 The Authors
First Published:First published in British Medical Journal 368(8238):m688
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons licence

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