The role of appetite-related hormones, adaptive thermogenesis, perceived hunger and stress in long-term weight-loss maintenance: a mixed-methods study

Thom, G. , Dombrowski, S. U., Brosnahan, N., Algindan, Y. Y., Rosario Lopez-Gonzalez, M., Roditi, G., Lean, M. E.J. and Malkova, D. (2020) The role of appetite-related hormones, adaptive thermogenesis, perceived hunger and stress in long-term weight-loss maintenance: a mixed-methods study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 74(4), pp. 622-632. (doi: 10.1038/s41430-020-0568-9) (PMID:32020057) (Early Online Publication)

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Abstract

Background/objectives: Weight-loss maintenance is challenging, and few succeed in the long term. This study aimed to explain how appetite-related hormones, adaptive thermogenesis, perceived hunger and stress influence weight-loss maintenance. Subjects/methods: Fifteen adult women (age, 46.3 ± 9.5 years; BMI, 39.4 ± 4.3 kg/m2) participated in a 24-month intervention, which included 3–5 months total diet replacement (825–853 kcal/d). Body weight and composition (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), resting metabolic rate (indirect calorimetry), and fasting plasma concentration of leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) were measured at baseline and after weight loss, around 6 months. Perceptions relating to weight-loss maintenance were explored using qualitative interviews. Results: Mean (SD) changes in body weight (−13.8 ± 6.3 kg) and total adipose tissue (−11.5 ± 4.9 kg) were significant (P < 0.001). Weight loss was associated with a significant reduction in resting metabolic rate (−291 ± 226 kcal/day, P < 0.001) and adaptive thermogenesis (−150 ± 162 kcal/day, P = 0.003), reduction in leptin (P < 0.001) and GLP-1 (P = 0.015), an increase in ghrelin (P < 0.001), and no changes in PYY and GDF-15. Weight regain between 6 and 24 months (6.1 ± 6.3 kg, P < 0.05) was correlated positively with change in GLP-1 (r = 0.5, P = 0.037) and negatively with GLP-1 at baseline (r = −0.7, P = 0.003) and after weight loss (r = −0.7, P = 0.005). Participants did not report increased hunger after weight loss, and stress-related/emotional eating was perceived as the main reason for regain. Conclusions: Weight regain is more likely with lower fasting GLP-1 and greater reduction in GLP-1 after weight loss, but psychological aspects of eating behaviour appear as important in attenuating weight-loss maintenance.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Early Online Publication
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Malkova, Dr Dalia and Brosnahan, Miss Naomi and Lean, Professor Michael and Thom, Mr George
Authors: Thom, G., Dombrowski, S. U., Brosnahan, N., Algindan, Y. Y., Rosario Lopez-Gonzalez, M., Roditi, G., Lean, M. E.J., and Malkova, D.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publisher:Springer Nature
ISSN:0954-3007
ISSN (Online):1476-5640
Published Online:04 February 2020

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