Characterizing infection in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–associated vasculitis: results from a longitudinal, matched-cohort data linkage study

Sarica, S. H. et al. (2020) Characterizing infection in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–associated vasculitis: results from a longitudinal, matched-cohort data linkage study. Rheumatology, 59(10), pp. 3014-3022. (doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keaa070) (PMID:32159801) (PMCID:PMC7516107)

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Abstract

Objectives: Infection exerts a major burden in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), however, its precise extent and nature remains unclear. In this national study we aimed to longitudinally quantify, characterize and contextualize infection risk in AAV. Methods: We conducted a multicentre matched cohort study of AAV. Complementary data on infections were retrieved via data linkage with the population-based Scottish microbiological laboratory, hospitalization and primary care prescribing registries. Results: A total of 379 AAV patients and 1859 controls were followed up for a median of 3.5 years (interquartile range 1.9–5.7). During follow-up, the proportions of AAV patients with at least one laboratory-confirmed infection, severe infection and primary care antibiotic prescription were 55.4%, 35.6% and 74.6%, respectively. The risk of infection was higher in AAV than in matched controls {laboratory-confirmed infections: incidence rate ratio [IRR] 7.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.6, 9.6]; severe infections: IRR 4.4 [95% CI 3.3, 5.7]; antibiotic prescriptions: IRR 2.2 [95% CI 1.9, 2.6]}. Temporal trend analysis showed that AAV patients remained at a higher risk of infections throughout the follow-up period, especially year 1. Although the Escherichia genus was the most commonly identified pathogen (16.6% of AAV, 5.5% of controls; P < 0.0001), AAV patients had the highest risk for Herpes [IRR 12.5 (95% CI 3.7, 42.6)] and Candida [IRR 11.4 (95% CI 2.4, 55.4)]. Conclusion: AAV patients have up to seven times higher risk of infection than the general population and the overall risk remains significant after 8 years of follow-up. The testing of enhanced short- to medium-term prophylactic antibiotic regimes should be considered.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Basu, Professor Neil
Authors: Sarica, S. H., Dhaun, N., Sznajd, J., Harvie, J., McLaren, J., McGeoch, L., Kumar, V., Amft, N., Erwig, L., Marks, A., Black, C., and Basu, N.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Rheumatology
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:1462-0324
ISSN (Online):1462-0332
Published Online:11 March 2020
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 The Authors
First Published:First published in Rheumatology 59(10): 3014-3022
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons license

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
190658The Scottish eHealth Informatics Research Centre (E-HIRCs).Jill PellMedical Research Council (MRC)MR/K007017/1HW - Public Health