Grip strength and walking pace and cardiovascular disease risk prediction in 406,834 UK Biobank participants

Welsh, C. E. et al. (2020) Grip strength and walking pace and cardiovascular disease risk prediction in 406,834 UK Biobank participants. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 95(5), pp. 879-888. (doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.12.032) (PMID:32299669)

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the addition of grip strength and/or self-reported walking pace to established cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores improves their predictive abilities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 406,834 participants from the UK Biobank, with baseline measurements between March 13, 2006, and October 1, 2010, without CVD at baseline were included in this study. Associations of grip strength and walking pace with CVD outcomes were investigated using Cox models adjusting for classical risk factors (as included in established risk scores), and predictive utility was determined by changes in C-index and categorical net reclassification index. RESULTS: Over a median of 8.87 years of follow-up (interquartile range 3, 8.25-9.47 years), there were 7274 composite fatal/nonfatal events (on the basis of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association [ACC/AHA] outcome) and 1955 fatal events (on the basis of the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation [SCORE] risk score). Both grip strength and walking pace were inversely associated with CVD outcomes after adjusting for classical risk factors. Addition of grip strength (change in C-index: ACC/AHA, +0.0017; SCORE, +0.0047), usual walking pace (ACC/AHA, +0.0031; SCORE, +0.0130), and both combined (ACC/AHA, +0.0041; SCORE, +0.0148) improved the C-index and also improved the net reclassification index (grip, +0.55%; walking pace, +0.53%; combined, 1.12%). CONCLUSION: The present study has found that the addition of grip strength or usual walking pace to existing risk scores results in improved CVD risk prediction, with an additive effect when both are added. As both these measures are cheap and easy to administer, these tools could provide an important addition to CVD risk screening, although further external validation is required.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Celis, Dr Carlos and Gray, Dr Stuart and Gill, Professor Jason and Brown, Miss Rosemary and Ho, Dr Frederick and Welsh, Dr Paul and Anderson, Dr Jana and Pell, Professor Jill and Mackay, Professor Daniel and Sattar, Professor Naveed and Welsh, Dr Claire and Lyall, Dr Donald
Authors: Welsh, C. E., Celis-Morales, C. A., Ho, F. K., Brown, R., Mackay, D. F., Lyall, D. M., Anderson, J. J., Pell, J. P., Gill, J. M.R., Sattar, N., Welsh, P., and Gray, S. R.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > Public Health
Journal Name:Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0025-6196
ISSN (Online):1942-5546
Published Online:13 April 2020
First Published:First published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings 95(5):879-888

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