Layer-by-layer growth of complex-shaped three-dimensional nanostructures with focused electron beams

Skoric, L., Sanz-Hernández, D., Meng, F., Donnelly, C., Merino-Aceituno, S. and Fernández-Pacheco, A. (2020) Layer-by-layer growth of complex-shaped three-dimensional nanostructures with focused electron beams. Nano Letters, 20(1), pp. 184-191. (doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b03565) (PMID:31869235)

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The fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures is of great interest to many areas of nanotechnology currently challenged by fundamental limitations of conventional lithography. One of the most promising direct-write methods for 3D nanofabrication is focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID), owing to its high spatial resolution and versatility. Here we extend FEBID to the growth of complex-shaped 3D nanostructures by combining the layer-by-layer approach of conventional macroscopic 3D printers and the proximity effect correction of electron beam lithography. This framework is based on the continuum FEBID model and is capable of adjusting for a wide range of effects present during deposition, including beam-induced heating, defocussing and gas flux anisotropies. We demonstrate the capabilities of our platform by fabricating free-standing nanowires, surfaces with varying curvatures and topologies, and general 3D objects, directly from standard stereolithography (STL) files and using different precursors. Real 3D nanoprinting as demonstrated here opens up exciting avenues for the study and exploitation of 3D nanoscale phenomena.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This work was supported by the EPSRC Cambridge NanoDTC EP/L015978/1, an EPSRC Early Career Fellowship EP/M008517/1, and the Winton Program for the Physics of Sustainability. L.S. acknowledges support from St. Johns College of the University of Cambridge. C.D. was supported by the Leverhulme Trust (ECF-2018-016), the Isaac Newton Trust (18-08), and the L’Oreal-UNESCO U.K. and Ireland ́ Fellowship For Women In Science. S. M.-A. was supported by the Vienna Research Groups Grant VRG17-014 by the Vienna Science and Technology Fund. D.S.-H. acknowledges a Girton College Pfeiffer Scholarship. F.M. was supported by China Scholarship Council.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Fernandez-Pacheco, Dr Amalio and Donnelly, Dr Claire and Skoric, Mr Luka
Authors: Skoric, L., Sanz-Hernández, D., Meng, F., Donnelly, C., Merino-Aceituno, S., and Fernández-Pacheco, A.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy
Journal Name:Nano Letters
Publisher:American Chemical Society
ISSN (Online):1530-6992
Published Online:23 December 2019
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2019 The American Chemical Society
First Published:First published in Nano Letters 20:184-191
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License
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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
306323Writing nanomagnets: Investigation of new magnetic nanostructures fabricated byAmalio Fernandez-PachecoEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/M008517/2P&S - Physics & Astronomy