Macrovascular disease: pathogenesis and risk assessment

Vella, S. and Petrie, J. R. (2019) Macrovascular disease: pathogenesis and risk assessment. Medicine, 47(2), pp. 65-71. (doi:10.1016/j.mpmed.2018.11.011)

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Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by obesity and insulin resistance. Macrovascular (cardiovascular) disease (CVD) encompasses myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral arterial disease. It is caused by atherosclerosis, a complex pathological process that is accelerated in people with diabetes and therefore accounts for a higher proportion of total mortality. Risk is modified by established factors including hypertension and dyslipidaemia (which are linked to underlying insulin resistance), and microalbuminuria/renal impairment. Hyperglycaemia is a relatively weak risk factor for CVD once diabetes is established. Potential ‘novel’ predictors include elevated B-type natriuretic peptide, obstructive sleep apnoea, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypoadiponectinaemia and testosterone deficiency, as well as chronic periodontitis and collagen vascular disorders. Early identification of cases and prompt management of risk factors is important in improving long-term outcome. Smoking cessation is a neglected area that requires urgent attention. Relative cardiovascular risk also remains high in type 1 diabetes, particularly in younger patients, and is also an important area for research.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Petrie, Professor John
Authors: Vella, S., and Petrie, J. R.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Medicine
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1357-3039
ISSN (Online):1878-9390
Published Online:24 December 2018

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