Physiology, development, and disease modeling in the Drosophila excretory system

Cohen, E., Sawyer, J. K., Peterson, N. G., Dow, J. A.T. and Fox, D. T. (2020) Physiology, development, and disease modeling in the Drosophila excretory system. Genetics, 214(2), pp. 235-264. (doi: 10.1534/genetics.119.302289) (PMID:32029579) (PMCID:PMC7017010)

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The insect excretory system contains two organ systems acting in concert: the Malpighian tubules and the hindgut perform essential roles in excretion and ionic and osmotic homeostasis. For over 350 years, these two organs have fascinated biologists as a model of organ structure and function. As part of a recent surge in interest, research on the Malpighian tubules and hindgut of Drosophila have uncovered important paradigms of organ physiology and development. Further, many human disease processes can be modeled in these organs. Here, focusing on discoveries in the past 10 years, we provide an overview of the anatomy and physiology of the Drosophila excretory system. We describe the major developmental events that build these organs during embryogenesis, remodel them during metamorphosis, and repair them following injury. Finally, we highlight the use of the Malpighian tubules and hindgut as accessible models of human disease biology. The Malpighian tubule is a particularly excellent model to study rapid fluid transport, neuroendocrine control of renal function, and modeling of numerous human renal conditions such as kidney stones, while the hindgut provides an outstanding model for processes such as the role of cell chirality in development, nonstem cell–based injury repair, cancer-promoting processes, and communication between the intestine and nervous system.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Dow, Professor Julian
Authors: Cohen, E., Sawyer, J. K., Peterson, N. G., Dow, J. A.T., and Fox, D. T.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Molecular Cell and Systems Biology
Journal Name:Genetics
Publisher:Genetics Society of America
ISSN (Online):1943-2631
Published Online:06 February 2020
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 by the Genetics Society of America
First Published:First published in Genetics 214:235264
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept - a tissue-based metabolomic online resource for the Drosophila and systems biology communitiesJulian DowBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/P024297/1MCSB - Integrative & Systems Biology