Protein and small non-coding RNA-enriched extracellular vesicles are released by the pathogenic blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni

Nowacki, F. C., Swain, M. T., Klychnikov, O. I., Niazi, U., Ivens, A., Quintana, J. F. , Hensbergen, P. J., Hokke, C. H., Buck, A. H. and Hoffmann, K. F. (2015) Protein and small non-coding RNA-enriched extracellular vesicles are released by the pathogenic blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. Journal of Extracellular Vesicles, 4(1), 28665. (doi: 10.3402/jev.v4.28665) (PMID:26443722) (PMCID:PMC4595467)

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Abstract

Background: Penetration of skin, migration through tissues and establishment of long-lived intravascular partners require Schistosoma parasites to successfully manipulate definitive host defences. While previous studies of larval schistosomula have postulated a function for excreted/secreted (E/S) products in initiating these host-modulatory events, the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has yet to be considered. Here, using preparatory ultracentrifugation as well as methodologies to globally analyse both proteins and small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), we conducted the first characterization of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula EVs and their potential host-regulatory cargos. Results: Transmission electron microscopy analysis of EVs isolated from schistosomula in vitro cultures revealed the presence of numerous, 30–100 nm sized exosome-like vesicles. Proteomic analysis of these vesicles revealed a core set of 109 proteins, including homologs to those previously found enriched in other eukaryotic EVs, as well as hypothetical proteins of high abundance and currently unknown function. Characterization of E/S sncRNAs found within and outside of schistosomula EVs additionally identified the presence of potential gene-regulatory miRNAs (35 known and 170 potentially novel miRNAs) and tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs; nineteen 5′ tsRNAs and fourteen 3′ tsRNAs). Conclusions: The identification of S. mansoni EVs and the combinatorial protein/sncRNA characterization of their cargo signifies that an important new participant in the complex biology underpinning schistosome/host interactions has now been discovered. Further work defining the role of these schistosomula EVs and the function/stability of intra- and extra-vesicular sncRNA components presents tremendous opportunities for developing novel schistosomiasis diagnostics or interventions.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Quintana, Dr Juan
Authors: Nowacki, F. C., Swain, M. T., Klychnikov, O. I., Niazi, U., Ivens, A., Quintana, J. F., Hensbergen, P. J., Hokke, C. H., Buck, A. H., and Hoffmann, K. F.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
Journal Name:Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Publisher:Taylor & Francis
ISSN:2001-3078
ISSN (Online):2001-3078
Published Online:05 October 2015
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2015 Fanny C. Nowacki et al.
First Published:First published in Journal of Extracellular Vesicles 4(1): 28665
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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