Suitability of loci for multiple-locus variable-number of tandem-repeats analysis of Cryptosporidium parvum for inter-laboratory surveillance and outbreak investigations

Chalmers, R. M., Robinson, G., Hotchkiss, E., Alexander, C., May, S., Gilray, J., Connelly, L. and Hadfield, S. J. (2017) Suitability of loci for multiple-locus variable-number of tandem-repeats analysis of Cryptosporidium parvum for inter-laboratory surveillance and outbreak investigations. Parasitology, 144(1), pp. 37-47. (doi: 10.1017/S0031182015001766) (PMID:26831252)

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Abstract

Cryptosporidium parvum is the major cause of livestock and zoonotically-acquired human cryptosporidiosis. The ability to track sources of contamination and routes of transmission by further differentiation of isolates would assist risk assessment and outbreak investigations. Multiple-locus variable-number of tandem-repeats (VNTR) analysis provides a means for rapid characterization by fragment sizing and estimation of copy numbers, but structured, harmonized development has been lacking for Cryptosporidium spp. To investigate potential for application in C. parvum surveillance and outbreak investigations, we studied nine commonly used VNTR loci (MSA, MSD, MSF, MM5, MM18, MM19, MS9-Mallon, GP60 and TP14) for chromosome distribution, repeat unit length and heterogeneity, and flanking region proximity and conservation. To investigate performance in vitro, we compared these loci in 14 C. parvum samples by capillary electrophoresis in three laboratories. We found that many loci did not contain simple repeat units but were more complex, hindering calculations of repeat unit copy number for standardized reporting nomenclature. However, sequenced reference DNA enabled reproducible fragment sizing and inter-laboratory allele assignation based on size normalized to that of the sequenced fragments by both single round and nested polymerase chain reactions. Additional Cryptosporidium loci need to be identified and validated for robust inter-laboratory surveillance and outbreak investigations.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Alexander, Miss Claire and Hotchkiss, Dr Emily
Authors: Chalmers, R. M., Robinson, G., Hotchkiss, E., Alexander, C., May, S., Gilray, J., Connelly, L., and Hadfield, S. J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
Journal Name:Parasitology
Publisher:Cambridge University Press
ISSN:0031-1820
ISSN (Online):1469-8161
Published Online:02 February 2016

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