Risk factors associated with biochemically detected and hospitalised acute kidney injury in patients prescribed renin angiotensin system inhibitors

Mark, P. B. , Papworth, R., Ramparsad, N., Tomlinson, L. A., Sahwney, S., Black, C., McConnachie, A. and McCowan, C. (2020) Risk factors associated with biochemically detected and hospitalised acute kidney injury in patients prescribed renin angiotensin system inhibitors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 86(1), pp. 121-131. (doi:10.1111/bcp.14141) (PMID:31663151)

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Abstract

Aims: Therapy with angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) is a mainstay of treatment for heart failure (HF), diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). These agents have been associated with development of acute kidney injury (AKI) during intercurrent illness. Risk factors for AKI in patients prescribed ACEi/ARB therapy are not well described. Methods: We captured the incidence of AKI in patients commencing ACEi/ARB during 2009–2015 using anonymised patient records. Hospital‐coded AKI was defined from hospital episode statistics; biochemical AKI was ascertained from laboratory data. Risk factors for biochemically detected and hospitalised AKI were investigated. Results: Of 61,318 patients prescribed ACEi/ARB, with 132 885 person years (py) follow‐up, there were 1070 hospitalisations with AKI as a diagnosis recorded and a total of 4645 AKI events, including AKI episodes indicated by biochemical KDIGO‐based creatinine change criteria. Incidence of any AKI event was 35.0 per 1000‐py, hospital‐coded AKI was 7.8 per 1000‐py and biochemical AKI was 33.7 per 1000‐py. Independent risk factors in a multivariable model for hospital‐coded AKI events were age, male gender, HF, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, socioeconomic deprivation, diuretic or non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory use (all P < 0.001). Conclusion: In patients prescribed ACEi/ARB, the highest risk of AKI is associated with conditions which are considered strong evidence‐based indications for their prescription. Socio‐economic status is an under‐reported risk factor for AKI with these agents. Strategies targeted at prevention of AKI may be of benefit, such as enhanced awareness based on higher risk comorbidities.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Ramparsad, Mr Nitish and McConnachie, Professor Alex and Mccowan, Professor Colin and Mark, Dr Patrick and Papworth, Dr Richard
Authors: Mark, P. B., Papworth, R., Ramparsad, N., Tomlinson, L. A., Sahwney, S., Black, C., McConnachie, A., and McCowan, C.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > Robertson Centre
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Publisher:Wiley
ISSN:0306-5251
ISSN (Online):1365-2125
Published Online:29 October 2019
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2019 The British Pharmacological Society
First Published:First published in Neurosignals 86(1):121-131
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
190901Mapping the incidence and outcomes of acute kidney injury associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors using prescribing recordsPatrick MarkChief Scientist Office (CSO)HICG/1/1Institute of Cardiovascular & Medical Sciences