The human Y chromosome exerts pleiotropic effects on susceptibility to atherosclerosis

Eales, J. M. et al. (2019) The human Y chromosome exerts pleiotropic effects on susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 39(11), pp. 2386-2401. (doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.119.312405) (PMID:31644355)

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Abstract

Objective: The male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) remains one of the most unexplored regions of the genome. We sought to examine how the genetic variants of the MSY influence male susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerosis. Approach and Results: Analysis of 129 133 men from UK Biobank revealed that only one of 7 common MSY haplogroups (haplogroup I1) was associated with CAD—carriers of haplogroup I1 had ≈11% increase in risk of CAD when compared with all other haplogroups combined (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04–1.18; P=6.8×10−4). Targeted MSY sequencing uncovered 235 variants exclusive to this haplogroup. The haplogroup I1–specific variants showed 2.45- and 1.56-fold respective enrichment for promoter and enhancer chromatin states, in cells/tissues relevant to atherosclerosis, when compared with other MSY variants. Gene set enrichment analysis in CAD-relevant tissues showed that haplogroup I1 was associated with changes in pathways responsible for early and late stages of atherosclerosis development including defence against pathogens, immunity, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial respiration, lipids, coagulation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. UTY was the only Y chromosome gene whose blood expression was associated with haplogroup I1. Experimental reduction of UTY expression in macrophages led to changes in expression of 59 pathways (28 of which overlapped with those associated with haplogroup I1) and a significant reduction in the immune costimulatory signal. Conclusions: Haplogroup I1 is enriched for regulatory chromatin variants in numerous cells of relevance to CAD and increases cardiovascular risk through proatherosclerotic reprogramming of the transcriptome, partly through UTY.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:The work described herein was supported by British Heart Foundation grants PG/16/49/32176 (to M. Tomaszewski), PG/12/9/29376 (to M. Tomaszewski), and RE/13/5/30177 (to T.J. Guzik and P. Maffia); National Institutes of Health R01 grant HL125863 (to J.L.M. Bjorkegren); Estonian Research Council grant PUT1036 (to P. Hallast); and European Research Council grant 726318 (to T.J. Guzik). C. Batini, P. Hallast, D. Zadik, and M.A. Jobling were supported by a Wellcome Trust Senior Fellowship grant to M.A. Jobling (087576). F.J. Charchar is supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia grant (APP 1123472).
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Maffia, Dr Pasquale and Schroeder, Dr Juliane and Guzik, Professor Tomasz
Authors: Eales, J. M., Maan, A. A., Xu, X., Michoel, T., Hallast, P., Batini, C., Zadik, D., Prestes, P., Molina, E., Denniff, M., Schroeder, J., Bjorkegren, J. L.M., Thompson, J., Maffia, P., Guzik, T. J., Keavney, B., Jobling, M. A., Samani, N. J., Charchar, F. J., and Tomaszewski, M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Publisher:American Heart Association
ISSN:1079-5642
ISSN (Online):1524-4636
Published Online:05 September 2019
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2019 The Authors
First Published:First published in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 39(11):2386-2401
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a creative commons licence

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
617771BHF centre of excellenceRhian TouyzBritish Heart Foundation (BHF)RE/13/5/30177RI CARDIOVASCULAR & MEDICAL SCIENCES

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