Contrasting selective patterns across the segmented genome of bluetongue virus in a global reassortment hotspot

Jacquot, M. et al. (2019) Contrasting selective patterns across the segmented genome of bluetongue virus in a global reassortment hotspot. Virus Evolution, 5(2), vez027. (doi: 10.1093/ve/vez027) (PMID:31392031) (PMCID:PMC6680063)

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Abstract

For segmented viruses, rapid genomic and phenotypic changes can occur through the process of reassortment, whereby co-infecting strains exchange entire segments creating novel progeny virus genotypes. However, for many viruses with segmented genomes, this process and its effect on transmission dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the consequences of reassortment for selection on viral diversity through time using bluetongue virus (BTV), a segmented arbovirus that is the causative agent of a major disease of ruminants. We analysed ninety-two BTV genomes isolated across four decades from India, where BTV diversity, and thus opportunities for reassortment, are among the highest in the world. Our results point to frequent reassortment and segment turnover, some of which appear to be driven by selective sweeps and serial hitchhiking. Particularly, we found evidence for a recent selective sweep affecting segment 5 and its encoded NS1 protein that has allowed a single variant to essentially invade the full range of BTV genomic backgrounds and serotypes currently circulating in India. In contrast, diversifying selection was found to play an important role in maintaining genetic diversity in genes encoding outer surface proteins involved in virus interactions (VP2 and VP5, encoded by segments 2 and 6, respectively). Our results support the role of reassortment in driving rapid phenotypic change in segmented viruses and generate testable hypotheses for in vitro experiments aiming at understanding the specific mechanisms underlying differences in fitness and selection across viral genomes.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This work was supported by BBSRC/DBT grant BB/L004690/1 to PPCM and by the Govt. of India grant BT/IN/Indo-UK/FADH/46/SM/2013 to SM. S.Y. received support from an ICAR International Fellowship awarded by Govt. of India. Work at MRC-CVR, UK was supported by Wellcome Trust, grant No: 092806/B/10/Z. Interactions between co-authors were also supported by the EU H2020 PALE-Blu grant (project No: 727393-2).
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Biek, Professor Roman and Mertens, Professor Peter and Nomikou, Dr Kyriaki and Yadav, Sarita and Jacquot, Dr Maude
Authors: Jacquot, M., Rao, P. P., Yadav, S., Nomikou, K., Maan, S., Jyothi, Y. K., Reddy, N., Hemadri, D., Singh, K. P., Maan, N. S., Hegde, N. R., Mertens, P., and Biek, R.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Virus Evolution
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:2057-1577
ISSN (Online):2057-1577
Published Online:05 August 2019
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2019 The Authors
First Published:First published in Virus Evolution 5(2):vez027
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
633531Development of diagnostic systems, reference collections and molecular epidemiology studies for important arboviral pathogens of livestock in IndiaRoman BiekBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/L004690/1RI BIODIVERSITY ANIMAL HEALTH & COMPMED
544122Phylogeography, transmission dynamics and pathogenesis of bluetongueMassimo PalmariniWellcome Trust (WELLCOTR)092806/Z/10/ZMVLS III - CENTRE FOR VIRUS RESEARCH
731901PALE-BluRoman BiekEuropean Commission (EC)727393RI BIODIVERSITY ANIMAL HEALTH & COMPMED