Cyclodextrin-complexed RAFT agents for the ambient temperature aqueous living/controlled radical polymerization of acrylamido monomers

Schmidt, B. V.K.J. , Hetzer, M., Ritter, H. and Barner-Kowollik, C. (2011) Cyclodextrin-complexed RAFT agents for the ambient temperature aqueous living/controlled radical polymerization of acrylamido monomers. Macromolecules, 44(18), pp. 7220-7232. (doi:10.1021/ma2011969)

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Abstract

The first aqueous reversible addition–fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm), N,N-diethylacrylamide (DEAAm), and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) utilizing host/guest complexes of cyclodextrin and hydrophobic chain transfer agents (CTAs) at 25 °C is described. Three novel guest-functionalized CTAs, namely 4-(tert-butyl)phenyl 2-(((ethylthio)carbonothioyl)thio)-2-methylpropanoate, bis(4-tert-butyl)benzyl carbonotrithioate, and benzyl (3-((4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)amino)-3-oxopropyl)carbonotrithioate, were synthesized and employed in aqueous RAFT polymerizations. The presented technique allows for the facile preparation of hydrophilic polymers with hydrophobic end groups in aqueous environments. The living/controlled radical polymerization afforded high molecular masses (7500 ≤ Mn ≤ 116 000 g mol–1 for poly(DMAAm), 2500 ≤ Mn ≤ 150 000 g mol–1 for poly(DEAAm), and 4000 ≤ Mn ≤ 50 000 g mol–1 for poly(NIPAAm)) with low PDIs (1.06 ≤ PDI ≤ 1.54 for poly(DMAAm), 1.05 ≤ PDI ≤ 1.39 for poly(DEAAm), and 1.15 ≤ PDI ≤ 1.46 for poly(NIPAAm)). To confirm the living character of the polymerizations, kinetic measurements were undertaken that evidence a linear evolution of molecular weight with conversion. Furthermore, chain extensions were carried out that indicate a very high reinitiation efficiency (poly(DMAAm): from 10 500 to 97 500 g mol–1, PDI = 1.08; poly(DEAAm): from 8500 to 83 000 g mol–1, PDI = 1.13; poly(NIPAAm): from 9000 to 90 000 g mol–1, PDI = 1.11). The resulting polymers were thoroughly characterized via N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) size exclusion chromatography, 1H NMR, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Schmidt, Dr Bernhard
Authors: Schmidt, B. V.K.J., Hetzer, M., Ritter, H., and Barner-Kowollik, C.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Chemistry
Journal Name:Macromolecules
Publisher:American Chemical Society
ISSN:0024-9297
ISSN (Online):1520-5835
Published Online:25 August 2011

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