Tough high modulus hydrogels derived from carbon-nitride via an ethylene glycol co-solvent route

Kumru, B., Molinari, V., Shalom, M., Antonietti, M. and Schmidt, B. V.K.J. (2018) Tough high modulus hydrogels derived from carbon-nitride via an ethylene glycol co-solvent route. Soft Matter, 14(14), pp. 2655-2664. (doi:10.1039/C8SM00232K) (PMID:29561058)

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Abstract

High concentration formulations of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) are utilized as photoinitiator and reinforcer for hydrogels. In order to integrate significant amounts of g-CN, ethylene glycol (EG) is employed as a co-solvent for the gel formation, which enables stable dispersion of up to 4 wt% g-CN. Afterwards, EG can be removed easily via solvent exchange to afford pure hydrogels. The diverse gels possess remarkably high storage moduli (up to 650 kPa for gels and 720 kPa for hydrogels) and compression moduli (up to 9.45 MPa for 4 wt% g-CN EG gel and 3.45 MPa for 4 wt% g-CN hydrogel). Full recovery without energy loss is observed for at least 20 cycles. Moreover, gel formation can be performed in a spatially controlled way utilizing photomasks with desired shapes. Therefore, the suggested method enables formation of hybrid gels by optical lithography with outstanding mechanical properties very similar to natural cartilage and tendon, and opens up opportunities for future applications in photocatalysis, additive manufacturing of biomedical implants and coating materials.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Open Access funding provided by the Max Planck Society.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Schmidt, Dr Bernhard
Authors: Kumru, B., Molinari, V., Shalom, M., Antonietti, M., and Schmidt, B. V.K.J.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Chemistry
Journal Name:Soft Matter
Publisher:Royal Society of Chemistry
ISSN:1744-683X
ISSN (Online):1744-6848
Published Online:13 March 2018
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry
First Published:First published in Soft Matter 14(14): 2655-2664
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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