Current strategies for quantification of estrogen in clinical research

Denver, N., Khan, S., Homer, N. Z.M., MacLean, M. R. and Andrew, R. (2019) Current strategies for quantification of estrogen in clinical research. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 192, 105373. (doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.04.022) (PMID:31112747) (PMCID:PMC6726893)

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Abstract

Estrogens and their bioactive metabolites play key roles in regulating diverse processes in health and disease. In particular, estrogen and estrogenic metabolites have shown both protective and non-protective effects on disease pathobiology, implicating the importance of this steroid pathway in disease diagnostics and monitoring. All estrogens circulate in a wide range of concentrations, which in some patient cohorts can be extremely low. However, elevated levels of E2 are also reported in disease. For example, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) levels are elevated in men with idiopathic PAH and in postmenopausal women with PAH. Conventional immunoassay techniques have been under scrutiny for some time with their selectivity, accuracy and precision coming into question. Analytical methodologies such as gas and liquid chromatography coupled to single and tandem mass spectrometric approaches (GC-MS, GC-MS/MS, LC-MS and LC-MS/MS) have been developed to quantify endogenous estrogens and in some cases their bioactive metabolites in biological fluids such as urine, serum, plasma and saliva. Liquid-liquid or solid-phase extraction approaches are favoured with derivatization remaining a necessity for lower volumes of sample. The limits of quantitation of individual assays vary but are commonly in the range of 0.5 - 5 pg/mL for estrone and estradiol, with limits of their bioactive metabolites being higher. This review provides an overview of current approaches for measurement of estrogens in biological matrices by MS, highlighting the advances in this field and the challenges remaining for routine use in the clinical and research environment. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.]

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This work was supported by a BBSRC iCASE PhD studentship (BB/N503691/1), the BHF (RG/16/2/32153 and PG/15/63/31659) and the Wellcome Trust (202794/Z/16/Z)
Keywords:derivatization, estrogen, extraction, gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Denver, Nina
Authors: Denver, N., Khan, S., Homer, N. Z.M., MacLean, M. R., and Andrew, R.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0960-0760
ISSN (Online):1879-1220
Published Online:18 May 2019
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2019 The Authors
First Published:First published in Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 192:105373
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
173026Sex and the development of pulmonary arterial hypertensionMargaret MacLeanBritish Heart Foundation (BHF)RG/16/2/32153Institute of Cardiovascular & Medical Sciences
172240Investigating oestrogen metabolism in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cellsMargaret MacLeanBritish Heart Foundation (BHF)PG/15/63/31659Institute of Cardiovascular & Medical Sciences