Effect of cat litters on feline coronavirus infection of cell culture and cats

Addie, D., Houe, L., Maitland, K. , Passantino, G. and Decaro, N. (2019) Effect of cat litters on feline coronavirus infection of cell culture and cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, (doi:10.1177/1098612x19848167) (PMID:31094626) (Early Online Publication)

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Abstract

Objectives: Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is caused by infection with feline coronavirus (FCoV). FCoV is incredibly contagious and transmission is via the faecal–oral route. FCoV infection, and therefore FIP, is most common in breeder and rescue catteries, where many cats are kept indoors, using litter trays. Whether it is possible to break the cycle of FCoV infection and re-infection using cat litters has never been investigated. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of cat litters on FCoV infectivity and virus load in multi-cat households, and transmission frequency. Methods: Fifteen cat litters were mixed and incubated with FCoV, centrifuged and the supernatants tested in vitro for the ability to prevent virus infection of cell culture. To test applicability of in vitro results to real life, virus load was measured in two households in a double crossover study of four Fuller’s earth-based cat litters by testing rectal swabs using FCoV reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR. Results: Four litters abrogated FCoV infection of cell culture, nine reduced it to a greater or lesser extent and two had no effect. One brand had different virus inhibitory properties depending on where it was manufactured. Fuller’s earth-based litters performed best, presumably by adsorbing virus. In the field study, there appeared to be less virus shedding on one Fuller’s earth-based cat litter. Conclusions and relevance: The in vitro study successfully identified cat litters that inactivate FCoV; such litters exist so do not need to be developed. Fuller’s earth-based litters best prevented infection of cell culture, but did not completely abrogate FCoV transmission in two multi-cat households. A dust-free clumping Fuller’s earth litter appeared to fare best, but virus shedding also varied on the control litters, complicating interpretation. Sawdust-based cat litters are not useful in FCoV-endemic households because they track badly and have a poor effect on virus infection.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Early Online Publication
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Addie, Dr Diane and Maitland, Ms Kirsty
Authors: Addie, D., Houe, L., Maitland, K., Passantino, G., and Decaro, N.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
Journal Name:Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Publisher:SAGE Publications
ISSN:1098-612X
ISSN (Online):1532-2750
Published Online:16 May 2019

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