Benefits and harms of oral anticoagulant therapy in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Ha, J. T. et al. (2019) Benefits and harms of oral anticoagulant therapy in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 171(3), pp. 181-189. (doi:10.7326/M19-0087) (PMID:31307056)

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Abstract

Background: Effects of oral anticoagulation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are uncertain. Purpose: To evaluate the benefits and harms of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and non–vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in adults with CKD stages 3 to 5, including those with dialysis-dependent end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Data Sources: English-language searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (inception to February 2019); review bibliographies; and ClinicalTrials.gov (25 February 2019). Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials evaluating VKAs or NOACs for any indication in patients with CKD that reported efficacy or bleeding outcomes. Data Extraction: Two authors independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and rated certainty of evidence. Data Synthesis: Forty-five trials involving 34 082 participants who received anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation (AF) (11 trials), venous thromboembolism (VTE) (11 trials), thromboprophylaxis (6 trials), prevention of dialysis access thrombosis (8 trials), and cardiovascular disease other than AF (9 trials) were included. All but the 8 trials involving patients with ESKD excluded participants with creatinine clearance less than 20 mL/min or estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 15 mL/min/1.73 m2. In AF, compared with VKAs, NOACs reduced risks for stroke or systemic embolism (risk ratio [RR], 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66 to 0.93]; high-certainty evidence) and hemorrhagic stroke (RR, 0.48 [CI, 0.30 to 0.76]; moderate-certainty evidence). Compared with VKAs, the effects of NOACs on recurrent VTE or VTE-related death were uncertain (RR, 0.72 [CI, 0.44 to 1.17]; low-certainty evidence). In all trials combined, NOACs seemingly reduced major bleeding risk compared with VKAs (RR, 0.75 [CI, 0.56 to 1.01]; low-certainty evidence). Limitation: Scant evidence for advanced CKD or ESKD; data mostly from subgroups of large trials. Conclusion: In early-stage CKD, NOACs had a benefit–risk profile superior to that of VKAs. For advanced CKD or ESKD, there was insufficient evidence to establish benefits or harms of VKAs or NOACs. Primary Funding Source: None. (PROSPERO: CRD42017079709)

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Mark, Dr Patrick
Authors: Ha, J. T., Neuen, B. L., Cheng, L. P., Jun, M., Toyama, T., Gallagher, M. P., Jardine, M. J., Sood, M. M., Garg, A. X., Palmer, S. C., Mark, P. B., Wheeler, D. C., Jha, V., Freedman, B., Johnson, D. W., Perkovic, V., and Badve, S. V.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Annals of Internal Medicine
Publisher:American College of Physicians
ISSN:0003-4819
ISSN (Online):1539-3704
Published Online:16 July 2019
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2019 American College of Physicians
First Published:First published in Annals of Internal Medicine 171(3):181-189
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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