Erythrocytosis in offspring of mothers with Type 1 diabetes-are factors other than insulin critical determinants?

Nelson, S., Freeman, D., Sattar, N. and Lindsay, R. (2009) Erythrocytosis in offspring of mothers with Type 1 diabetes-are factors other than insulin critical determinants? Diabetic Medicine, 26(9), pp. 887-892. (doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02797.x)

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Aim Maternal diabetes is associated with polycythaemia and thrombocytopaenia in the offspring; however, the relationship with fetal hormones is unknown. We assessed the association of maternal glycaemic control, birthweight and fetal hormones with haematological indices in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes. Methods Prospective study using cord blood samples from 89 offspring of mothers with Type 1 diabetes (OT1DM) and 34 control offspring. Full blood count, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and C-reactive protein were measured in the umbilical vein at birth. Results Haematocrit was higher in OT1DM (OT1DM 0.55 +/- 0.17%, control offspring 0.51 +/- 0.06%; P = 0.02). The difference in platelets count was not statistically significant [OT1DM 214 x 10(9)/l (173-259); control offspring 253 x 10(9)/l (180-310), P = 0.06]. Maternal glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) showed a moderate positive correlation with fetal haematocrit (r = 0.30, P = 0.02). Cord platelet counts were negatively associated with birthweight in OT1DM (r = -0.27, P = 0.01). In multivariate models, cord insulin was not associated with haematocrit, but cord leptin was negatively associated with platelets in control offspring (P < 0.001) and OT1DM (P = 0.046), with additional contributions from male sex (P = 0.08) in OT1DM, and IGF-1 (P = 0.04) and insulin (P = 0.04) in control offspring. Conclusions Fetal haematocrit is increased in response to diabetes in pregnancy and is related to maternal glycaemic control. Fetal hyperinsulinism, hyperleptinaemia or macrosomia, although readily demonstrable in this cohort, do not emerge as determinants of raised fetal haematocrit in OT1DM. Both increased birthweight and fetal leptin are negatively associated with platelet count.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Lindsay, Dr Robert and Freeman, Dr Dilys and Nelson, Professor Scott and Sattar, Professor Naveed
Authors: Nelson, S., Freeman, D., Sattar, N., and Lindsay, R.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing > Clinical Specialities
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Diabetic Medicine
Publisher:Blackwell Publishing

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