Alopecia areata is characterized by dysregulation in systemic type 17 and type 2 cytokines, which may contribute to disease‐associated psychological morbidity

Bain, K.A. et al. (2019) Alopecia areata is characterized by dysregulation in systemic type 17 and type 2 cytokines, which may contribute to disease‐associated psychological morbidity. British Journal of Dermatology, (doi:10.1111/bjd.18008) (PMID:30980732) (Early Online Publication)

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Abstract

Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease, causing patchy hair loss that can progress to involve the entire scalp (totalis) or body (universalis). CD8+NKG2D+ T cells dominate hair follicle pathogenesis, but the specific mechanisms driving hair loss are not fully understood. Objectives To provide a detailed insight into the systemic cytokine signature associated with AA, and assess the association between cytokines and depression. Methods: Multiplex analysis of plasma cytokines from AA patients, psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients and healthy controls. We also assessed incidence of depression and anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Our analysis identified a systemic inflammatory signature associated with AA, characterised by elevated levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-23 indicative of a type 17 immune response. Circulating levels of the type 2 cytokines IL-33, IL-31 and IL-17E/25 are also significantly increased in AA. In comparison to PsA, AA was associated with higher levels of IL-17F, IL-17E and IL-23. We hypothesised that circulating inflammatory cytokines may contribute to wider comorbidities associated with AA. We assessed psychiatric comorbidity in AA using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and found that 18% and 51% of people with AA experienced symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Using linear regression modelling, we identified that levels of IL-22 and IL-17E are positively and significantly associated with depression. Conclusion: Our data highlight changes in both type 17 and 2 cytokines, suggesting that complex systemic cytokine profiles may contribute both to the pathogenesis of AA and to the associated depression.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:The study was funded by a PhD studentship grant from Medical Research Scotland that was part funded by Astra Zeneca. We also received funding from Alopecia UK to support the alopecia research clinic. Funding for the psoriatic arthritis study was provided by a grant from Versus Arthritis to AB and SM.
Status:Early Online Publication
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:McInnes, Professor Iain and Cavanagh, Professor Jonathan and McDonald, Mrs Elaine and Siebert, Dr Stefan and Milling, Professor Simon and Bain, Kym and Ijaz, Dr Umer
Authors: Bain, K.A., McDonald, E., Moffat, F., Tutino, M., Castelino, M., Barton, A., Cavanagh, J., Ijaz, U.Z., Siebert, S., McInnes, I.B., Astrand, A., Holmes, S., and Milling, S.W.F.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > General Practice and Primary Care
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > Mental Health and Wellbeing
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Infrastructure and Environment
Journal Name:British Journal of Dermatology
Publisher:Wiley
ISSN:0007-0963
ISSN (Online):1365-2133
Published Online:13 April 2019
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2019 Wiley
First Published:First published in British Journal of Dermatology 2019
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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