Gene and environmental interactions according to the components of lifestyle modifications in hypertension guidelines

Kokubo, Y., Padmanabhan, S. , Iwashima, Y., Yamagishi, K. and Goto, A. (2019) Gene and environmental interactions according to the components of lifestyle modifications in hypertension guidelines. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 24(1), 19. (doi: 10.1186/s12199-019-0771-2) (PMID:30857519) (PMCID:PMC6410507)

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Abstract

Risk factors for hypertension consist of lifestyle and genetic factors. Family history and twin studies have yielded heritability estimates of BP in the range of 34-67%. The most recent paper of BP GWAS has explained about 20% of the population variation of BP. An overestimation of heritability may have occurred in twin studies due to violations of shared environment assumptions, poor phenotyping practices in control cohorts, failure to account for epistasis, gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, and other non-genetic sources of phenotype modulation that are suspected to lead to underestimations of heritability in GWAS. The recommendations of hypertension guidelines in major countries consist of the following elements: weight reduction, a healthy diet, dietary sodium reduction, increasing physical activity, quitting smoking, and moderate alcohol consumption. The hypertension guidelines are mostly the same for each country or region, beyond race and culture. In this review, we summarize gene-environmental interactions associated with hypertension by describing lifestyle modifications according to the hypertension guidelines. In the era of precision medicine, clinicians who are responsible for hypertension management should consider the gene-environment interactions along with the appropriate lifestyle components toward the prevention and treatment of hypertension. We briefly reviewed the interaction of genetic and environmental factors along the constituent elements of hypertension guidelines, but a sufficient amount of evidence has not yet accumulated, and the results of genetic factors often differed in each study.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This study was supported by grants-in-aid from Scientific Research A (grant no.17H01557 for Yoshihiro Kokubo) and Challenging Exploratory Research (grant no.17K1987 for Yoshihiro Kokubo).
Keywords:Epidemiology, gene and environmental interaction, hypertension, hypertension guideline, lifestyle.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Kokubo, Professor Yoshihiro and Padmanabhan, Professor Sandosh
Authors: Kokubo, Y., Padmanabhan, S., Iwashima, Y., Yamagishi, K., and Goto, A.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1342-078X
ISSN (Online):1347-4715
Published Online:11 March 2019
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2019 The Authors
First Published:First published in Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 24(1):19
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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