NOX5: molecular biology and pathophysiology

Touyz, R. M. , Anagnostopoulou, A., Rios, F., Montezano, A. C. and Camargo, L. L. (2019) NOX5: molecular biology and pathophysiology. Experimental Physiology, (doi:10.1113/EP086204) (PMID:30801870) (Early Online Publication)

Touyz, R. M. , Anagnostopoulou, A., Rios, F., Montezano, A. C. and Camargo, L. L. (2019) NOX5: molecular biology and pathophysiology. Experimental Physiology, (doi:10.1113/EP086204) (PMID:30801870) (Early Online Publication)

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Abstract

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (Nox), comprise seven family members (Nox1–Nox5 and dual oxidase 1 and 2) and are major producers of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells. Reactive oxygen species are crucially involved in cell signalling and function. All Noxs share structural homology comprising six transmembrane domains with two haem‐binding regions and an NADPH‐binding region on the intracellular C‐terminus, whereas their regulatory systems, mechanisms of activation and tissue distribution differ. This explains the diverse function of Noxs. Of the Noxs, NOX5 is unique in that rodents lack the gene, it is regulated by Ca2+, it does not require NADPH oxidase subunits for its activation, and it is not glycosylated. NOX5 localizes in the perinuclear and endoplasmic reticulum regions of cells and traffics to the cell membrane upon activation. It is tightly regulated through numerous post‐translational modifications and is activated by vasoactive agents, growth factors and pro‐inflammatory cytokines. The exact pathophysiological significance of NOX5 remains unclear, but it seems to be important in the physiological regulation of sperm motility, vascular contraction and lymphocyte differentiation, and NOX5 hyperactivation has been implicated in cardiovascular disease, kidney injury and cancer. The field of NOX5 biology is still in its infancy, but with new insights into its biochemistry and cellular regulation, discovery of the NOX5 crystal structure and genome‐wide association studies implicating NOX5 in disease, the time is now ripe to advance NOX5 research. This review provides a comprehensive overview of our current understanding of NOX5, from basic biology to human disease, and highlights the unique characteristics of this enigmatic Nox isoform.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Early Online Publication
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Anagnostopoulou, Dr Aikaterini and Montezano, Dr Augusto and Touyz, Professor Rhian and Rios, Dr Francisco
Authors: Touyz, R. M., Anagnostopoulou, A., Rios, F., Montezano, A. C., and Camargo, L. L.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Experimental Physiology
Publisher:Wiley
ISSN:0958-0670
ISSN (Online):1469-445X
Published Online:23 February 2019
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2019 The Authors
First Published:First published in Experimental Physiology 2019
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
607382Vascular Noxs as therapeutic targets and biomarkers in hypertensionRhian TouyzBritish Heart Foundation (BHF)RG/13/7/30099RI CARDIOVASCULAR & MEDICAL SCIENCES
617771BHF centre of excellenceRhian TouyzBritish Heart Foundation (BHF)RE/13/5/30177RI CARDIOVASCULAR & MEDICAL SCIENCES
607381Vascular Noxs as therapeutic targets and biomarkers in hypertensionRhian TouyzBritish Heart Foundation (BHF)CH/12/4/29762RI CARDIOVASCULAR & MEDICAL SCIENCES