Smith, K.M. (2000) Semiconductor pixel detectors. Informacije Midem: Journal of Microelectronics Electronic Components and Materials, 30 (1). 1 -15. ISSN 0352-9045 (doi:10.1088/1748-0221/4/03/P03013)
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Semiconductor pixel detectors were originally developed for particle physics experiments as a logical development from silicon microstrip detectors. offering the potential for high spatial precision, two dimensional location of ionising charged particle trajectories. The development became practical, as with microstrip detectors. only with the availability of suitable VLSI read-out electronics and reliable (and affordable) interconnect technology, ("flip-chip" bonding). Pixel detectors have also been studied more recently as imaging devices, particularly for X-rays in medical and non-destructive testing applications, and in synchrotron radiation beams. In the following, a description is given of the evolution and current state of development of pixel detectors for all of these applications. Reference is made to both monolith ic and hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors, considering not only silicon, (crystalline and amorphous), but also alternative semiconductor materials. The performance and limitations of current read-out electronics and bonding technology for hybrid detectors are discussed, together with the relative merits of charge integrating versus photon counting read-out for X-ray imaging applications. The paper concludes with an outline of potentially valuable future development possibilities.
|Glasgow Author(s):||Smith, Prof Kenway|
|Subjects:||T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering|
|College/School:||College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy|
|Journal Name:||Informacije Midem: Journal of Microelectronics Electronic Components and Materials|