Venous thromboembolism in primary nephrotic syndrome - is the risk high enough to justify prophylactic anticoagulation?

Rankin, A.J. , McQuarrie, E.P., Fox, J.G., Geddes, C.C. and MacKinnon, B. (2017) Venous thromboembolism in primary nephrotic syndrome - is the risk high enough to justify prophylactic anticoagulation? Nephron, 135(1), pp. 39-45. (doi: 10.1159/000448628) (PMID:27669572)

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Abstract

Background: The reported incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) varies widely, as does the approach to prophylactic anticoagulation. We aimed to assess the incidence of VTE in patients with primary NS in order to inform a sample size calculation to determine if a future clinical trial will ever be feasible. Methods: All adults undergoing native renal biopsy for NS between 2008 and 2013 yielding a diagnosis of primary glomerulonephritis were identified. Baseline serum albumin, urine protein:creatinine ratio, estimated glomerular filtration rate, date of biopsy and histological diagnosis were recorded. Episodes of objectively verified VTE were identified using the electronic patient record. Sample size calculations were performed based on 2 independent samples with a dichotomous outcome and to achieve a power of 80% and p < 0.05. Results: Two hundred six patients were included of which 60% were male and mean age at biopsy was 55 years (SD 19). Median follow-up was 2.9 years (interquartile range (IQR) 1.6-4.7). Fourteen (6.8%) patients suffered VTE. Median time to diagnosis of VTE from renal biopsy was 36 days (IQR -22 to 178), with 6 VTEs occurring prior to biopsy and 1 during remission. In a total of 270 patient years of NS, there were 7 VTE that could potentially have been avoided if anticoagulation was given for the duration of NS, that is, 2.6% risk per year of NS; this risk was highest for patients with minimal change nephropathy at 13.3% per year of NS, compared to 0.65% per year of NS for those with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Assuming a 75% reduction in the incidence of VTE with prophylactic anticoagulation, 972 participants would be required for a future clinical trial to have 80% power. Conclusions: Patients with primary NS are at an increased risk of VTE. The timing of VTE means that only half of episodes would be targeted by prophylactic anticoagulation. Given the low frequency of events, a well-powered clinical trial would be challenging to achieve.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Mackinnon, Dr Bruce and Fox, Dr Jonathan and Geddes, Dr Colin and McQuarrie, Dr Emily and Rankin, Dr Alastair
Authors: Rankin, A.J., McQuarrie, E.P., Fox, J.G., Geddes, C.C., and MacKinnon, B.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:Nephron
Publisher:Karger
ISSN:1660-8151
ISSN (Online):2235-3186
Published Online:24 September 2016
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2016 Karger AG
First Published:First published in Nephron 135(1): 39-45
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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