Strength of hydroxide catalysis bonds between sapphire, silicon, and fused silica as a function of time

Phelps, M., Masso Reid, M. , Douglas, R., van Veggel, A.-M. , Mangano, V., Haughian, K., Jongschaap, A., Kelly, M., Hough, J. and Rowan, S. (2018) Strength of hydroxide catalysis bonds between sapphire, silicon, and fused silica as a function of time. Physical Review D, 98(12), 122003. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.98.122003)

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Abstract

Hydroxide catalysis bonds have formed an integral part of ground-based gravitational wave (GW) observatories since the 1990s. By allowing the creation of quasimonolithic fused silica mirror suspensions in detectors such as GEO600 and Advanced LIGO, their use was crucial to the first ever direct detection of gravitational waves. Following these successes, this bonding technique has been included in advanced next generation cryogenic detector designs. Currently, they are used to create quasimonolithic crystalline sapphire suspensions in the KAGRA detector. They are also planned for use in silicon suspensions of future detectors such as the Einstein Telescope. In this paper we report how the strength of hydroxide catalysis bonds evolves over time, and compare the curing rates of bonds as they form between fused silica substrates to those between sapphire to sapphire and silicon to silicon substrates. For bonds between all three types of substrate material we show that newly formed bonds exhibit slightly higher breaking stresses than bonds cured for longer periods of time. We find that the strength stabilizes at ≥ 15     MPa for bonds cured for up to 30 weeks (7 months). This finding is important to future cryogenic GW detector design as it is crucial to ensure the long term integrity of the suspension interfaces. Monitoring the strength of bonds that have been allowed to cure for shorter lengths of time can also shed light on the chemistry of bond formation.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Masso Reid, Ms Mariela and Phelps, Margot H and van Veggel, Dr Marielle and Mangano, Valentina and Rowan, Professor Sheila and Hough, Professor James and DOUGLAS, Rebecca and Haughian, Dr Karen
Authors: Phelps, M., Masso Reid, M., Douglas, R., van Veggel, A.-M., Mangano, V., Haughian, K., Jongschaap, A., Kelly, M., Hough, J., and Rowan, S.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy
Journal Name:Physical Review D
Publisher:American Physical Society
ISSN:2470-0010
ISSN (Online):2470-0029
Published Online:10 December 2018
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 American Physical Society
First Published:First published in Physical Review D 98(12):122003
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
459312Investigations in Gravitational Radiation.Sheila RowanScience & Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/I001085/1P&A - PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY
459313Investigations in Gravitational Radiation.Sheila RowanScience & Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/J000361/1P&A - PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY
624341Investigations in Gravitational Radiation / Particle Astrophysics Capital equipmentSheila RowanScience & Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/L000946/1S&E P&A - PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY
713723Investigations in gravitational radiationSheila RowanScience & Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/N005422/1S&E P&A - PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY
599864Underexplored properties of hydroxide catalysis bondsAnna-Maria Van VeggelThe Royal Society (ROYSOC)DH120021S&E P&A - PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY