Immunotherapy: enhancement the efficacy of this promising therapeutic in multiple cancers

Inthagard, J., Edwards, J. and Roseweir, A. K. (2019) Immunotherapy: enhancement the efficacy of this promising therapeutic in multiple cancers. Clinical Science, 133(2), pp. 181-193. (doi: 10.1042/CS20181003) (PMID:30659159)

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Abstract

Cancer treatments often reach a refractory period leading to treatment failure and patients developing disease recurrence. This can be due to tumour cells escaping the immune response and creating an immunosuppressive microenvironment enhancing cancer progression. Immunotherapy has become a promising tool for cancer treatment as it restores the anti-tumour response of the patient’s immune system. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are the most widely studied immunotherapies worldwide and are now approved for multiple cancers. However, CAR-T cell therapy has also shown promise by targeting T-lymphocytes that are genetically modified ex vivo to expressed chimeric antigen receptors and this is now approved to treat some haematological cancers. Although immunotherapy has shown successful treatment outcomes in multiple cancers, some patients do not respond to this treatment. Therefore, approaches to enhance the efficacy of immunotherapies are likely to be the key to improving their effectiveness. Therefore, combination therapies of checkpoint inhibitors +/- chemotherapy are at the forefront of current research. Furthermore, biomarkers that predict treatment response are now beginning to emerge. Additionally, utilizing nanoparticles as a new-targeted drug delivery system to enhance CAR-T cell therapy may enhance the efficacy of the cells when re-infused within the patient. Even if efficacy is enhanced, severe immune-related adverse events (irAEs) occur that are life threatening and could lead to therapy being stopped. Therefore, predictive biomarkers for toxicity are also needed to improve both the patient’s quality of life and treatment outcomes. This review will look at the current immunotherapies in clinical trials and discuss how to enhance their efficacy.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This work was supported by a Thai Government Scholarship.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Roseweir, Dr Antonia and Edwards, Professor Joanne and Inthagard, Jitwadee
Authors: Inthagard, J., Edwards, J., and Roseweir, A. K.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cancer Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:Clinical Science
Publisher:Portland Press
ISSN:0143-5221
ISSN (Online):1470-8736
Published Online:18 January 2019
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2019 The Authors
First Published:First published in Clinical Science 133(2):181-193
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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