Sodalis glossinidius presence in wild tsetse is only associated with presence of trypanosomes in complex interactions with other tsetse-specific factors

Channumsin, M., Ciosi, M. , Masiga, D., Turner, C. M. R. and Mable, B. K. (2018) Sodalis glossinidius presence in wild tsetse is only associated with presence of trypanosomes in complex interactions with other tsetse-specific factors. BMC Microbiology, 18(Supp1.), 163. (doi:10.1186/s12866-018-1285-6) (PMID:30470184) (PMCID:PMC6251152)

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Abstract

Background: Susceptibility of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) to trypanosomes of both humans and animals has been associated with the presence of the endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius. However, intrinsic biological characteristics of the flies and environmental factors can influence the presence of both S. glossinidius and the parasites. It thus remains unclear whether it is the S. glossinidius or other attributes of the flies that explains the apparent association. The objective of this study was to test whether the presence of Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei are related to the presence of S. glossinidius in tsetse flies when other factors are accounted for: geographic location, species of Glossina, sex or age of the host flies. Results: Flies (n = 1090) were trapped from four sites in the Shimba Hills and Nguruman regions in Kenya. Sex and species of tsetse (G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. longipennis and G. pallidipes) were determined based on external morphological characters and age was estimated by a wing fray score method. The presence of trypanosomes and S. glossinidius was detected using PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer region 1 and the haemolysin gene, respectively. Sequencing was used to confirm species identification. Generalised Linear Models (GLMs) and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) were applied to investigate multivariable associations. The overall prevalence of trypanosomes was 42.1%, but GLMs revealed complex patterns of associations: the presence of S. glossinidius was associated with trypanosome presence but only in interactions with other factors and only in some species of trypanosomes. The strongest association was found for T. congolense, and no association was found for T. vivax. The MCA also suggested only a weak association between the presence of trypanosomes and S. glossinidius. Trypanosome-positive status showed strong associations with sex and age while S. glossinidius-positive status showed a strong association with geographic location and species of fly. Conclusions: We suggest that previous conclusions about the presence of endosymbionts increasing probability of trypanosome presence in tsetse flies may have been confounded by other factors, such as community composition of the tsetse flies and the specific trypanosomes found in different regions.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Mable, Professor Barbara and Turner, Professor Michael and Ciosi, Dr Marc
Authors: Channumsin, M., Ciosi, M., Masiga, D., Turner, C. M. R., and Mable, B. K.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:BMC Microbiology
Publisher:BMC
ISSN:1471-2180
ISSN (Online):1471-2180
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 International Atomic Energy Agency; licensee Biomed Central
First Published:First published in BMC Microbiology 18(Suppl 1):163
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
550591The population genetics and co-adaptation of trypanosomes with tsetse fliesCharles TurnerWellcome Trust (WELLCOTR)093692/Z/10/ZIII - PARASITOLOGY