Integrated 3D hydrogel waveguide out-coupler by step-and-repeat thermal nanoimprint lithography: a promising sensor device for water and pH

Francone, A., Kehoe, T., Obieta, I., Saez-Martinez, V., Bilbao, L., Khokhar, A., Gadegaard, N. , Simao, C., Kehagias, N. and Sotomayor Torres, C. (2018) Integrated 3D hydrogel waveguide out-coupler by step-and-repeat thermal nanoimprint lithography: a promising sensor device for water and pH. Sensors, 18(10), 3240. (doi:10.3390/s18103240) (PMID:30261650) (PMCID:PMC6210174)

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Abstract

Hydrogel materials offer many advantages for chemical and biological sensoring due to their response to a small change in their environment with a related change in volume. Several designs have been outlined in the literature in the specific field of hydrogel-based optical sensors, reporting a large number of steps for their fabrication. In this work we present a three-dimensional, hydrogel-based sensor the structure of which is fabricated in a single step using thermal nanoimprint lithography. The sensor is based on a waveguide with a grating readout section. A specific hydrogel formulation, based on a combination of PEGDMA (Poly(Ethylene Glycol DiMethAcrylate)), NIPAAm (N-IsoPropylAcrylAmide), and AA (Acrylic Acid), was developed. This stimulus-responsive hydrogel is sensitive to pH and to water. Moreover, the hydrogel has been modified to be suitable for fabrication by thermal nanoimprint lithography. Once stimulated, the hydrogel-based sensor changes its topography, which is characterised physically by AFM and SEM, and optically using a specific optical set-up.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:The authors acknowledge the financial support from: the EU project, NAPANIL project (No. FP7-CP-IP 214249), the MINECO project PHENTOM (No. FIS2015-70862). ICN2 acknowledges support from the Severo Ochoa Program (MINECO, Grant SEV-2013-0295) and funding from the CERCA Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Gadegaard, Professor Nikolaj
Authors: Francone, A., Kehoe, T., Obieta, I., Saez-Martinez, V., Bilbao, L., Khokhar, A., Gadegaard, N., Simao, C., Kehagias, N., and Sotomayor Torres, C.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Biomedical Engineering
Journal Name:Sensors
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:1424-8220
ISSN (Online):1424-8220
Published Online:26 September 2018
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 The Authors
First Published:First published in Sensors 18(10): 3240
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
462361Na PANILNikolaj GadegaardEuropean Commission (EC)214249 NAPANILENG - BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING