[1] Nakamura Y, Pashkin Yu A and Tsai J S 1999 Coherent control
of macroscopic quantum states in a single-Cooper-pair box
Nature 398 786–8
[2] van der Wal C H, ter Haar A C J, Wilhelm F K, Schouten R N,
Harmans C J P M, Orlando T P, Lloyd S and Mooij J E 2000
Quantum superposition of macroscopic persistent-current
states Science 290 773–7
[3] Chiorescu I, Nakamura Y, Harmans C J P M and
Mooij J E 2003 Coherent quantum dynamics of a
superconducting flux qubit Science 299 1869–71
[4] Martinis J M, Nam S, Aumentado J and Urbina C 2003 Rabi
oscillations in a large Josephson-junction qubit Phys. Rev.
Lett. 89 117901
[5] Zeilinger A 1999 Experiment and the foundations of quantum
physics Rev. Mod. Phys. 71 288
[6] Steffen M et al 2006 Measurement of the entanglement of two
superconducting qubits via quantum state tomography
Science 313 1423–5
[7] Oliver W D, Yu Y, Lee J C, Berggren K K, Levitov L S and
Orlando T P 2005 Mach–Zehnder interferometry in a
strongly driven superconducting qubit Science 310 1653–7
[8] Valenzuela S A, Oliver W, Berns D M, Berggren K K,
Levitov L S and Orlando T P 2006 Microwave-induced
cooling of a superconducting qubit Science 314 1589–91
[9] Gerry C S and Knight P L 2005 Introductory Quantum Optics
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
[10] Wallraff A, Schuster D I, Blais A, Frunzio L, Huang R-S,
Majer J, Kumar S, Girvin S M and Schoelkopf R J 2004
Strong coupling of a single photon to a superconducting
qubit using circuit quantum electrodynamics Nature
431 162–7
[11] Blais A, Huang R, Wallraff A, Girvin S M and
Schoelkopf R J 2004 Cavity quantum electrodynamics for
superconducting electrical circuits: an architecture for
quantum computation Phys. Rev. A 69 062320
[12] Yoshie T, Sherer A, Hendrickson A, Khitrova G, Gibbs H M,
Rupper G, Ell C, Shchekin O B and Deppe D G 2004 Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity Nature 432 200–3
[13] Reithmaier J P, Löffler A, Sk G, Hofmann C, Kuhn S,
Reitzenstein S, Keldysh L V, Kulakovskii V D, Reinecke T L and Forchel A 2004 Strong coupling in a
single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system
Nature 432 197–200
[14] Lupaşcu A, Saito S, Pictot T, de Groot P C, Harmans C J M
and Mooij J E 2006 Quantum non-demolition measurement
of superconducting two-level system Preprint
cond-mat/0611505
[15] Schuster D I et al 2007 Resolving photon number states in a
superconducting circuit Nature 445 515
[16] Johansson G, Tornberg L and Wilson C M 2006 Fast quantum
limited readout of a superconducting qubit using a slow
oscillator Phys. Rev. B 74 100504R
[17] Grajcar et al 2006 Four-qubit device with mixed couplings
Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 047006
[18] Mooij J E, Orlando T P, Levitov L, Tian L,
van der Wal C H and Lloyd S 1999 Josephson
persistent-current qubit Science 285 1036
[19] Chiorescu I, Bertet P, Semba K, Nakamura Y,
Harmans C J P M and Mooij J E 2004 Coherent dynamics of
a flux qubit coupled to a harmonic oscillator Nature
431 159–62
[20] Walls D F and Milburn G J 1994 Quantum Optics (Berlin:
Springer)
[21] Johansson J, Saito S, Meno T, Nakano H, Ueda M,
Semba K and Takayanag H 2007 Vacuum Rabi oscillations
in a macroscopic superconducting qubit LC oscillator
system Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 127006
[22] Alsing P, Guo D S and Carmichael H J 1994 Dynamic Stark
effect for the Jaynes–Cummings system Phys. Rev. A 47
5135–43
[23] Bertet P, Chiorescu I, Burkard G, Semba K, Harmans C J P M,
Di Vincenzo D P and Mooij J E 2004 Relaxation and
dephasing in a flux qubit Preprint cond-mat/0412485
[24] Kakuyanagi K, Meno T, Saito S, Nakano H, Semba K,
Takayanagi H, Deppe F and Shnirman A 2007 Dephasing of
a superconducting flux qubit Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 47004
[25] Tan S 1999 A computational toolbox for quantum and atomic
optics J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 1 424–32
[26] Oxborrow M and Sinclair A 2005 Single photon sources
Contemp. Phys. 46 173–206
[27] Rau I, Johansson G and Shnirman A 2004 Cavity quantum
electrodynamics in superconducting circuits: susceptibility
at elevated temperatures Phys. Rev. B 70 054521
[28] Houck A A et al 2007 Generating single microwave photons in
a circuit Preprint cond-mat/0702648v1
[29] Mariantoni M, Storcz M J, Wilhelm F K, Oliver W D,
Emmert A, Marx A, Gross R, Christ H and Solano E 2006
On-chip microwave Fock states and quantum homodyne
measurements Preprint cond-mat/0509737
[30] Marquardt F 2006 Efficient on-chip source of microwave
photon pairs in superconducting circuit QED Preprint
cond-mat/0605232
[31] Zagoskin A M, Grajcar M and Omelyanchouk A N 2004
Selective amplification of a quantum state Phys. Rev. B 70
060301
[32] Saito K, Wubs M, Kohler S, Hänggi P and Kayanuma Y 2006
Quantum state preparation in circuit QED via Landau–Zener
tunneling Europhys. Lett. 76 22–8
[33] Breuer H P and Petruccione F 2004 The Theory of Open
Quantum Systems (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
[34] Glauber R J 1963 Coherent and incoherent states of radiation
field Phys. Rev. 131 2766–88